The Hindu Newspaper 02nd April 2020

1)Which of the following dams is NOT built on Krishna River?

  1. Srisailam Dam
  2. Nagarjuna Sagar Dam
  3. Jayakwadi Dam
  4. Almatti Dam

2)Exercise Malabar’ is an exercise between navies of India and

  1. USA and Japan
  2. Israel and France
  3. South Africa and Singapore
  4. Sri Lanka and Bangladesh

3)Consider the following statements with respect to ‘Global Goalkeeper Award’

  1. The award celebrates a political leader who has “demonstrated their commitment to the Global Goals through impactful work in their country and/or globally.
  2. It is a “special recognition” by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Select the correct statements

  1. 1 Only
  2. 2 Only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

4)The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) is constituted under the<

  1. Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006
  2. Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999
  3. Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
  4. Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

Answers:-

1)Jayakwadi Dam is located on Godavari river.

Map of the Day:-

Mekong Ganga Cooperation

Mnemonic: LIMCa TV

  1. L- Laos
  2. I- India
  3. M- Myanmar
  4. Ca- Cambodia
  5. T- Thailand
  6. V- Vietnam

1) Centre defines J&K domicile rules :- Home Affairs (MHA) makes changes to the Public Safety Act (PSA) by removing a clause that prohibited J&K residents booked under the Act to be lodged injails outside.

The notification scraps all pension benefits such as car,driver, accommodation,phones, electricity, medical facilities and rent free accommodation to former J&K Chief Ministers.

The order says the domiciles will be eligible “for the purposes of appointment to any post carrying a pay scale of not more than Level 4”.

The Level 4 post comprises positions such as gardeners, barbers, office peons and waterman, and the highest rank in the category is that of a junior assistant.

2)DGCA allows flights to carry cargo in cabin:-

The Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) is the statutory body formed under the Aircraft (Amendment) Bill, 2020. This directorate investigates aviation accidents and incidents.

The Government of India is planning to replace the organisation with a Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), modelled on the lines of the American Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

The Aircraft (Amendment) Bill, 2020:-

The Bill is intended to carry out amendments to the Aircraft Act, 1934 (XXII of 1934).

The Bill enhances the maximum limit of fine from the existing ₹10 lakhs to ₹one crore.

It also enlarges the scope of the Act to include regulation of all areas of air navigation.

The proposed amendments would fulfill the safety requirements of International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO).

This will also enable the three regulatory bodies in the civil aviation sector in India—

  1. Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA),
  2. Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS) and
  3. Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau (AAIB) to become more effective.

This (the Bill) will lead to enhancement in the level of safety and security of aircraft operations in the country

A few other provisions would also be made part of the law that will also help in complying with the International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO) requirements.

The Aircraft (Amendment) Bill, 2020 also provides for keeping “aircraft belonging to any armed forces of the Union, other than naval, from military or air force outside the purview” of the Aircraft Act, 1934.

Other proposals include empowering BCAS or any authorised officer to issue directions, having designated officers for adjudging penalties and introducing a provision for compounding of offences.

3)DRDO to make five layer masks:-

DRDO works under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence, Government of India.

It is working to establish world class science and technology base for India and provides our Defence Services decisive edge by equipping them with internationally competitive systems and solutions.

Genesis & Growth:-

DRDO was established in 1958 after combining Technical Development Establishment (TDEs) of the Indian Army and the Directorate of Technical Development & Production (DTDP) with the Defence Science Organisation (DSO).

4) All about SMOG:-

Smog = smoke + fog (smoky fog) caused by the burning of large amounts of coal, vehicular emission and industrial fumes (Primary pollutants).

Smog contains soot particulates like smoke, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and other components.

At least two distinct types of smog are recognized: sulfurous smog and photochemical smog.

Primary and secondary pollutants:- 

A primary pollutant is an air pollutant emitted directly from a source.

A secondary pollutant is not directly emitted as such, but forms when other pollutants (primary pollutants) react in the atmosphere.

Examples of a secondary pollutant include ozone, which is formed when hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) combine in the presence of sunlight;

NO combines with oxygen in the air; and

acid rain, which is formed when sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides react with water.
Sulfurous smog

Sulfurous smog is also called “London smog,” (first formed in London).

Sulfurous smog results from a high concentration of SULFUR OXIDES in the air and is caused by the use of sulfur-bearing fossil fuels, particularly coal (Coal was the mains source of power in London during nineteenth century. The effects of coal burning were observed in early twentieth century).

This type of smog is aggravated by dampness and a high concentration of suspended particulate matter in the air.

Photochemical smog is also known as “Los Angeles smog”.

Photochemical smog occurs most prominently in urban areas that have large numbers of automobiles (Nitrogen oxides are the primary emissions).

Photochemical (summer smog) forms when pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (primary pollutant) and organic compounds (primary pollutants) react together in the presence of SUNLIGHT. A gas called OZONE (Secondary pollutant) is formed.

Nitrogen Dioxide  +  Sunlight  +  Hydrocarbons  =  Ozone (Ozone in stratosphere it is beneficial, but near the earth’s surface it results in global warming as it is a greenhouse gas)

Editorial Of the Day :-

Still no bullseye, in volume and value

Central Theme :- Indian Defence Imports are decreasing and Exports have increased, green signal but still some challenges.

Basedon the latest estimates released by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) in the period between 2009-13 and 2014-18, Indian defence imports fell even as exports increased.

Broadly, two factors appear to be driving this shift.

The first is the‘Make in India’ initiative, as part of which a number of components from Indian private and public sector enterprises have been prioritised by the government.

Defence Procurement Policy created a new procurement category in the revised DPP of 2016 dubbed ‘Buy Indian Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured’ (IDDM).

The second set of factors is extraneous to India in the form of delays in supplying equipment by vendors and the outright cancellation of contracts by the Indian government or at least a diminutionof existing contracts.

The Major Issue :-

SMEs still face stunted growth because India’s defence industrial model is at odds with global trends in that it tends to created is incentives for the private sector. Governments, including theincumbent, have tended to privilege Defence Public Sector Units(DPSUs) over the private sector,despite ‘Make in India’.

This model is highly skewed, undermining the growth of private players anddiminishes the strength of research and development.

Editorial 2:- 

Thinking national, acting local

National planning, by what ever name it is called (Planning Commission or NITI Aayog), has failed to produce all round development of India’s economy so far.

As per author there are two issues / reasons for this. 

1. Constitutional Challenge

2. Competence challenge

1) Constitutional challenge:- As per author if the planning body does not have constitutional status independent from that of the government, it will be forced to bend to the will of the latter. Niti aayog is Not constitutional and hence it’s efficacy is not much.

2) Competence Challenge:- Whether a planning institution allocates money, or advises others how to, it must have the necessary competence.

A national planning institution must guide allround progress. It must assist in achieving not just faster GDP growth, but also more socially inclusive, and more environmentally sustainable growth. For this, it needs a good model in which societaland environmental forces are within the model.

Editorial 3:- The battle to set oil prices

Crude oil prices tanked,as the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and its alliance partners failed to reach any consensus on cutting back production to levels that would enable prices to remain stable.

There has been a spectacular fall of around 30% in crude oil prices.

Why Russia Dont want to cut production:- Russia’s decision to reject any production cuts is driven directly by its strategy of denying market share to American shale oil producers. The latter rely on higher prices in the range of $50-$60 to remain profitable because of higher production costs.

At $31 per barrel, not more than five American shale oil producers can remain profitable.

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