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The Hindu Newspaper 04th April 2020

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1)Which of the following statements is/are correct with respect to ‘Regulating Act of 1773’

  1. It provided the establishment of Supreme Court at Calcutta
  2. It designated the Governor of Bengal as Governor-General of Bengal
  3. The act prohibited servants of EIC from engaging in any private trade or accepting bribes and gifts from native

Select the correct statements

  1. 1 Only
  2. 1 and 2
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

2)‘Tulbul navigation project’ is associated with India and

  1. Nepal
  2. Bhutan
  3. Pakistan
  4. Myanmar

3)Which one of the following potteries are associated with Indus Valley Civilisation?

  1. Red and Black pottery
  2. Painted Grey ware
  3. Northern Black Painted ware
  4. All of the above

4)Which of the following is not a tributary of River Krishna?

  1. Bhima
  2. Hemavathi
  3. Malaprabha
  4. Venna

Tributaries:-
Left – Bhima, Dindi, Peddavagu, Musi, Paleru, Munneru

Right – Venna, Koyna, Panchganga, Dudhaganga, Ghataprabha, Malaprabha,
Tungabhadra.

Map of the Day :

Soils of India :-

 

1)IIT Roorkee develops ventilator:- Named ‘Prana-Vayu,’ the closed loop ventilator can deliver the required amount of air to the patient, with an automated process. controlling the pressure and flow rates.

2)Lockdown makes Delhi Air best in last 5 years:-

National Air Quality Index (AQI):-

    Launched by the Environment Ministry in April 2015.

Initiative under ‘Swachh Bharat’. The proposed AQI will consider eight pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO, O3, NH3, and Pb).

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)  are the standards for ambient air quality set by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) that is applicable nationwide.

The CPCB has been conferred this power by the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.

The NAAQS have been revisited and revised in November 2009 for 12 pollutants, which include

  •     sulphur dioxide (S02),
  • nitrogen dioxide (NO2),
  •    particulate matter having micron (PM10),
  •   particulate matter having size less than 2.5 micron (PM2.5),
  •    ozone,
  • lead,
  • carbon monoxide (CO),
  • arsenic,
  • nickel,
  • benzene,
  • ammonia, and
  • Benzo pyrene

3) CISF :-

It was set up under an Act of the Parliament of India on 10 March 1969 with a strength of 2,800. CISF was subsequently made an armed force of the Republic of India by another Act of Parliament passed on 15 June 1983.

Constituting Act :- Central Industrial Security Force Act, 1968

It is directly under the Union Ministry of Home Affairs and not the Ministry of Defence, its headquarters are at New Delhi.

CISF plays a major role in Disaster Management, for Disaster Management course the personnel are trained from NISA, Hyderabad.

Another unique thing which the CISF has is a Fire Wing which helps during fire accidents in Industries where CISF is on guard.

4)News :- States get ₹11,092 crore for COVID-19 :The Union Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) on Friday approved the release of ₹11,092 crore under the State Disaster Risk Management Fund (SDRMF) to all the States to take measures for containment of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Union Ministry ofHome Affairs (MHA) on Friday approved the release of ₹11,092 crore under the State Disaster Risk Management Fund (SDRMF) to all the States to take measures for containment of the COVID-19 pandemic.

All about SDRF :-

Features of SDRF:

  • SDRF is located in the ‘Public Account’ under ‘Reserve Fund’. (But direct expenditures are not made from Public Account.)
  • State Government has to pay interest on a half yearly basis to the funds in SDRF, at the rate applicable to overdrafts.
  • The aggregate size of the SDRF for each state, for each year, is as per the recommendations of the Finance Commission.
  • The share of GoI to the SDRF is treated as a ‘grant in aid’.
  • Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) can recommend an earlier release of 25% of the central share due to a state in the following year, if the exigencies of the particular calamity so warrants. This advance release is adjusted against future instalments due from the center.
  • The accretions to the SDRF together with the income earned on investment are to be invested in central government securities or in interest earning deposits with banks, which when needed are liquidated.
  • The financing of relief measures out of SDRF are decided by the State Executive Committee (SEC) constituted under Section 20 of the DM Act. SEC is responsible for the overall administration of the SDRF. However, the administrative expenses of SEC are borne by the State Government from its normal budgetary provisions and not from the SDRF or NDRF.
  • The norms regarding the amount to be incurred on each approved item of expenditure (type of disaster) are fixed by the Ministry of Home Affairs with the concurrence of Ministry of Finance. Any excess expenditure has to be borne out of the budget of the state government.
  • In the wake of natural calamities, a state Government is empowered to undertake necessary relief measures from SDRF, which is readily available with them. If additional financial assistance is required from National Disaster Response Fund ((NDRF) they have to submit a memorandum for the same and in the mean time utilize contingency fund of the State, if SDRF is exhausted.
  • Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal ministry for overseeing the operation of the SDRF and monitors compliance with prescribed processes.
  • Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) audit the SDRF every year.

5)National Security Act:

It is a stringent law that allows preventive detention for months, if authorities are satisfied that a person is a threat to national security or law and order.

The person does not need to be charged during this period of detention. The goal is to prevent the individual from committing a crime. It was promulgated on September 23, 1980, during the Indira Gandhi government.

As per the National Security Act, the grounds for preventive detention of a person include:

  1. acting in any manner prejudicial to the defence of India, the relations of India with foreign powers, or the security of India.
  2. regulating the continued presence of any foreigner in India or with a view to making arrangements for his expulsion from India.
  3. preventing them from acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State or from acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order or from acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of supplies and services essential to the community it is necessary so to do.

Duration:

Under the National Security Act, an individual can be detained without a charge for up to 12 months; the state government needs to be intimated that a person has been detained under the NSA.

A person detained under the National Security Act can be held for 10 days without being told the charges against them. 

Appeal: The detained person can appeal before a high court advisory board but they are not allowed a lawyer during the trial.

Editorial of the Day :-

The spectre of a post COVID-19 world

Central theme :- The pandemic could not have come at a more difficult time; the global order could see major changes, so author discusses what these changes would be.

No china replacement :- What is known is that China’s growth rate has further plummeted, even as it was confronting an economic slowdown which had been in the works forsome time.

The consequences for the global economy of China ceasing to be the world’s biggest exporter of manufactured goods are considerable, and with no country in a position to replace it, this development will precipitate a further economic downturn internationally.

Added to this were: a global slowdown, increasing political and policy uncertainties, alterations in social behaviour, new environmental norms, etc.

Newly emerging economies, such as India, were even more affected by all this, than some of the older established ones.

Prognosis for India:- An early estimate by the Asian Development Bank, soon after the epidemic was declared, was that it would cost the Indian economy $29.9 billion.

A recent industry estimate pegs the cost of the lockdown at around $120 billion or 4% of India’s GDP.

The Confederationof Indian Industry (CII) had at onepoint warned that the COVID19impact, and the existing stress inthe financial sector, meant that India would require up to six month seven after the entire course of the COVID-19 epidemic is over to restore normalcy and business continuity.

***What lies ahead for world***: A global recession seems inevitable.

Uncertainty, panic and lockdown policies are expected to cause demand worldwide to decline in a precipitous way.

This will inevitably lead to a vicious downward cycle, where companies close down, resulting in more layoffs and a further drop in consumption.

A precipitous decline in GDP would follow. To compensatefor this loss, massive inflows of government funds would be needed, but most governments, India included, might find it difficult to find adequate resources for this purpose.

Status of USA post Covid-19 :- USA is one of the worst affected nation because of Covid-19.

Post COVID-19, however, and given that the U.S. is among the countries badly affected by this pandemic, together with existing uncertainties affecting its financial markets, the U.S. can be expected to step back even further — from one of assertion to neutrality in global affairs.

***Social Concerns of Pandemic***:- Extended isolation, according to psychologists, can trigger a different kind of pandemic even leading to possible suicidal tendencies, fits of anger, depression, alcoholism and eccentric behavioural patterns.

Digital Supremacy arriving :- One possible, and unexpected, aspect of the COVID-19 epidemic could be the thrust it could provide to ‘digital authoritarianism’.

The rise of digital autocracies could lead to digital repression, and in the age of AI-powered surveillance, create a capacity for predictive control, or what is often referred to as ‘social management’.

 

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