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The Hindu Newspaper 06/05/2020

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1)The same face of the Moon is always presented to the Earth. Why?

2)Consider the following pairs:

            Pass                                              State

  1. Banihal Pass                      Himachal Pradesh
  2. Niti Pass                                    Uttarakhand
  3. Jelepla Pass                   Jammu and Kashmir
  4. Bom Di La                       Arunachal Pradesh
  5. Bara Lacha La                         Sikkim

Which of the above are incorrectly matched:

3) Miyawaki Method is Related to which of the following ?

A. Japanese art of Flower Decoration

B. Nobel winning Japanese Biologist study.

C. Method of Afforestation

D. Japanese method of Vaccine Development.

Solution:-

 

Map of the Day :- North Korea & South Korea

 

News:- TRF a Pak. ploy to avoid scrutiny, says J&K’s DGP

Background:- The TRF had claimed responsibility for the April 5 incident along the Line of Control in the Kupwara sector, where five Army personnel were killed.

What is TRF:- It is Kashmir’s new militant group, The Resistance Front (TRF).

2) About ASI :- The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), under the Ministry of Culture, is the premier organization for the archaeological researches and protection of the cultural heritage of the nation.

Maintenance of ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance is the prime concern of the ASI.

Besides it regulate all archaeological activities in the country as per the provisions of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958. It also regulates Antiquities and Art Treasure Act, 1972.

For the maintenance of ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance the entire country is divided into 24 Circles.

History:- Archaeological and historical pursuits in India started with the efforts of Sir William Jones, who put together a group of antiquarians to form the Asiatic Society on 15th January 1784 in Calcuta.

In 1833 James Prinsep became the secretary of the Asiatic Society. His most eventful achievement is the decipherment of the Brahmi and Kharoshthi scripts between 1834 and 1837. The identification of Piyadasi with Asoka and the contemporary kings mentioned in his Rock Edict XIII enabled to fix a clear chronological bench mark for Indian history.

Alexander Cunningham was appointed as the first Archaeological Surveyor from December 1861 in Archeological Survey of India.

EDITORIALS OF THE DAY:-

1) Pathways to a more resilient economy (GS-3)

The COVID-19 global pandemic is a catastrophe, both for human lives and for economies. It has challenged various established tenets of Economics.

Author gave seven radical ideas emerging as pathways to build a more resilient economy and a more just society:-

i) “De-Growth” :- Economists used to be obsessed with GDP as sole measure of Growth but that tenet has been challenged by Covid-19.

Now the economists are rethinking the fundamentals of Economics.

A fivepoint ‘de-growth’ manifesto by 170 Dutch academics has gone viral amidst the heightened Internet buzz during thelockdown.

ii) Boundaries between countries are good: Hyper Globalizers say that Boundaries,impede flows of trade, finance, and people. Therefore, removing boundaries is good for global growth.

However, since countries are at different stages of economic development, and have different compositions of resources, they must follow different paths to progress.

According to systems’ theory, subsystems within complex systems must have boundaries around them, albeit appropriately permeable ones, so that the sub-systems can maintain their own integrity and evolve.

COVID19 has given another reason to maintain sufficient boundaries.

iii) Government is good:- Ronald Reagan’s dictum, “Government is not the solution… Government is the problem”, has been ended by COVID-19.

Even capitalist corporations who wanted governments out of the way to make it easy for them to do business are lining up for government bailouts.

iv) The “market” is not the best solution :- The “marketization” of economies has contributed to the increasing inequalities in wealth over the last 50 years, which Thomas Piketty and others have documented.

v) “Citizen” welfare, not “consumer” welfare, must be the objective of progress: In economies, human beings are consumers and producers.

In societies, they are citizens. Citizens have a broader set of needs than consumers. Citizens’needs cannot be fulfilled merely by enabling them to consume more goods and services. They value justice, dignity, and societal harmony too.

vi)Competition must be restrained: Collaboration is essential for progress. Faith in “Darwinian competition”, with the survival of only the fittest, underlies many pathologies of modern societies and economies and thus should not become the normal.

Improvement in abilities to share and govern common resources have become essential for human survival in the 21st century.

vii)Intellectual property belongs to the public:- We are living in an era of knowledge, those who own knowledge have more power and wealth than the rest.

Intellectual property monopolies are producing enormous wealth for their owners, though many were developed on the back of huge public investments. IP rights should not supercede the Public Welfare and thus ideas like Patent Pool are good ones.

These Approaches could help us in becoming more resilient for any such future shock.

Editorial 2:- Boost wages to stimulate India’s growth (GS-3)

Central Idea :- We need to plan for an economic growth driven byrising — and not stagnant — wages, and a development model that is dispersed far and wide across the country, and not centred in a few big cities.

Some Facts:- Out of India’s total workforce of 471.5 million, only 12.3% are regular workers receiving some form of social security, while the rest are mostly casual workers or petty producers surviving under various degrees of informality.

According to the 2011 Census, there were 54.3 million persons (workers as well as nonworkers) in the country who migrated from one State to the other. The ‘heartland’ States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh accounted for 48.9% of these inter-State migrants.

Between 2005 and 2018, 19.3 million persons left agricultural work in these four States alone and sought job opportunities elsewhere. ‘Workers’ shift out of agricultural occupations as well as out of their rural bases is set to accelerate, unless new economic opportunities are created in the countryside.

Data on Demand and Consumption and why we need to widen the Demand base :-

According to the official consumption expenditure surveys (for 2011-12), the richest 5% accounted for as much as 64.4% of the value of overall consumption of durable goods (such as of furniture or refrigerators) in urban India. The share of the poorest 50% was only 13.4%.

Solution:- The crisis in the economy can be overcome only by widening the sources of demand, by raising the consumption of and investment for the poor.

Example :- Consider, for instance, the setting up of industries linked to food processing or affordable housing in rural areas. The multiplier effects of such investment will be huge. Food processing can help boost farmer incomes, reduce food spoilage, create rural employment and, above all, improve the availability of nutritious food to the needy.

How to achieve higher/equitable Consumption :-

  1. Firms should assist in raising workers’ wages and incomes, and thereby, in enlarging the size of the markets.Even with higher wages, profit rates will not dip because the larger demand allows firms to utilise their capacities better.
  2. For rejuvenation of demand, it is critical that governments increase spending on the economy, in areas such as infrastructure and innovation. Government spending can boost the “animal spirits” of the private investors, as had been suggested by John Maynard Keynes amidst thegreat depression of the 1930s.

Increasing  the wages and the spirits of the wearied Indian worker could just be the dose required to bring cheer to the Indian and the global economies.

Editorial 3:- It’s time for a virtual judiciary

Covid-19 demonstrated how many activities can be done online, this phase of Work from home brings us to the question, how can we use technology to ensure speedy disposal of cases?

Hurdles with Judiciary :-

  • Pendency of Cases
  • Less Infrastructure
  • Underutilization of Existing infrastructure , for ex. Many Tax tribunals work only half a day.
  • Judges nit accountable for efficiency and performance.
  • Legal Cost too high
  • Legal procedures too complicated.

It is in this context that we make the case for a virtual judiciary.

For many economic matters we can submit all the papers via mail. The judge can decide the case based on all the available information. Wherever the judge requires clarifications, he or she can seek the same through email.

Typically, the judge, after considering all the material available, can pass a draft order and send it to both sides for any comments which they may want to provide. There after, the judge can, after considering the comments, pass the final order. This will enhance the quality of the judgment and also eliminate obvious errors.

The use of Court halls for such cases is not needed.

Not only will a virtual judiciary result in substantial savings in costs but will also lead to speedy disposal of cases. The productivity of lawyers will increase substantially as visits to courts andlong waiting hours will be more an exception than a rule. If this practice is extended to other civil cases, efficiency will double, even treble, in judicial functioning.

The fact that the jurisdiction of a court is defined by geography makes no sense in matters such as taxation and company law.

The change to remote, non personal electronic court hearings will change this. All judges should be empowered to handle any case, wherever it originates.

If vested interests are kept aside and collective will to initiate what is for the common good takes precedence, a virtual judiciary can become a part of our lives.

News:- Darbar Move’ burdens exchequer, says J&K HC

The Jammu and Kashmir High Court on Tuesday asked the Centre and theUnion Territory (UT) administration to take a final callon the continuation of the 148 year old practice of shifting capitals annually between Srinagar and Jammu, “which burdens the exchequer”.

The practice of ‘Darbar Move’ was started by Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1872 to escape the extreme weather conditions in the two regions.

News:- Ships on way to the Maldives, UAE

The Navy dispatched twoships, INS Jalashwa and INS Magar, to Male under Operation “Samudra Setu” to repatriate stranded Indian citizens.

Defence sources confirmed that INS Shardul and INS Airavat had set sail to the UAE.

News:- China launches new rocket, spacecraft

China successfully launched a new rocket and prototype spacecraft, in a major test of the country’s ambitions to operate a permanent space station and send astronauts to the Moon.

‘The Long March 5B’ rocket took off from the Wenchang launch site in the southern island of Hainan and eight minutes later an unmanned prototype spaceship successfully separated and entered its planned orbit

The spaceship will oneday transport astronauts to a space station that China plans to complete by 2022 —and eventually to the Moon. It will have capacity for acrew of six.

The United States is so far the only country to have successfully sent humans to theMoon.

News:- 3 Indian photographers win Pulitzer Prize

Three photographers — Mukhtar Khan, Yasin Dar and Channi Anand —were named for the award.

Pulitzer prize is for Journalism.

News: Amid high inflation, Iran to get a new currency 

Iran’s government debated changing the national currency, the rial, by basically slashing four zeros off its face value —an acknowledgement of how American sanctions and economic mismanagement have contributed to inflation inthe country.

The Iranian Parliament essentially took that step, authorising the replacement of the rial with another basic unit of currency called the toman. Each toman will be worth 10,000 rials under the new system.

The Guardian Council, a body of conservative clerics that supervises Parliament, is expected to ratify the law, and then the Central Bank will have two years to implement the change — removing rials from circulation and issuing tomans instead.

 

 

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