The Hindu Newspaper 06/07/2020

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Kodavas are a small martial community inhabited in which following states?

a.  Goa

b.  Kerala

c.  Karnataka

d.  Tamil Nadu

Answer : c

The special privilege to own firearms without a license was granted to the Kodavas, a small martial community in Kodagu (Coorg) District in Karnataka, by the British in recognition of their martial traditions.

2)Saffir–Simpson scale is associated with which of the following?

a.  Hurricane

b.  Earthquake

c.  Heat waves

d.  Volcanic eruption

Answer : a

The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS) classifies hurricanes that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds.

3)Gundla Brahmeswaram Wildlife Sanctuary is located in which of the following states?

a.  Odisha

b.  Karnataka

c.  Andhra Pradesh

d.  Himachal Pradesh

Answer : c

News:-

Why in News

Recently, China has made new territorial claims in the eastern sector of Bhutan’s Trashigang district.

Key Points

  • Territorial Claim of China:
    • China made this claim at an online meeting of the 58th Global Environment Facility (GEF) Council, while objecting to the funding request to develop the Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary project in eastern Bhutan.
      • However, GEF cleared the funding to the project after Bhutan protested against the Chinese claims.
      • Set up in 1992, GEF is a US-based global body to finance projects in the environment sector.
    • According to China, the Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the China-Bhutan disputed areas which is on the agenda of China-Bhutan boundary talk.
    • China claims that the boundary between China and Bhutan has never been delimited. It has had disputes over the eastern, central and western sectors of Bhutan.
  • Bhutan’s Position:
    • Bhutan totally rejected the claim made by China. It said that Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary is an integral and sovereign territory of Bhutan.
      • Also, Sakteng Sanctuary in the past too has received such grants, including in 2018-2019, for a project on preventing soil erosion, without any objection from China.
    • Bhutan has conveyed its position to China through its embassy in New Delhi— since both countries don’t have embassies in each other’s countries.
      • Bhutan and China do not have any formal diplomatic relations, both the countries conduct their diplomatic communication through their missions in Delhi.
    • China and Bhutan have a dispute in only two sectors of the border, one in the north (central) – Pasamlung and Jakarlung, and second in the west – Doklam.
    • There has been no mention of eastern Bhutan, or Trashigang district, where Sakteng is based, in 24 previous rounds of boundary negotiations held between the two countries between 1984 and 2016.
  • Concerns for India:
    • China’s new territorial claim is a part of the larger Chinese tactics of putting pressure on India’s smaller neighbours, to punish them for any closeness to India.
      • In 2017 China had intruded into Doklam plateau, which is claimed by Bhutan, leading to a standoff between Indian and Chinese Armies.
    • China might be doing this to put a pressure on India, or to divert India’s attention from its aggression at Ladakh.
    • Sakteng is situated along the border with Arunachal Pradesh, some part of which is also claimed by China.
    • Even after the India-Bhutan Friendship Treaty of 2007, Indian military is virtually responsible for protecting Bhutan from the kind of external threat that the Chinese military poses.
      • According to the India-Bhutan Friendship Treaty of 1949, Bhutan allowed India to “guide” its foreign policy and defence affairs.
      • However, the 1949 treaty was amended in 2007 to respect the sensitivities of Bhutan regarding its sovereignty.
      • Under the India-Bhutan Friendship Treaty of 2007, the two sides have agreed to cooperate closely with each other on issues relating to their national interests.
        • Neither Government shall allow the use of its territory for activities harmful to the national security and interest of the other.
    • China has said that a third party should not point fingers in the China-Bhutan border issue, which is an apparent reference to India.

Way Forward

  • Bhutan has protested against Chinese territorial claims in eastern Bhutan and said that it will also contest in future if China refers to the territory as disputed.
  • Safety of Border from China is a concern for both India and Bhutan. Therefore, both sides need to work together on this issue.

GLOBAL ENVIRONMEMT FACILITY :- Global Environment Facility (GEF) – Introduction

Since its inception, this multilateral financial mechanism has advanced $17.9 billion in grants and mobilized an additional $93.2 billion in financing for more than 4,500 projects in 170 countries.

  1. GEF was established during the Rio Earth Summit of 1992.
  2. It is based in Washington DC. United States
  3. The GEF is jointly managed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Bank and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
  4. 183 nations are united under GEF in partnership with civil society organizations (CSOs). International institutions, private sector etc with the purpose of addressing the environmental issues across the globe.
  5. The financial mechanism was established to help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems. It provides funds to the developing countries and transition economies for projects related to climate change, Biodiversity, ozone layer.

Global Environment Facility – 6 Focal Areas

As an independently operating financial organization, GEF addresses six designated focal areas which are listed below.

  1. Biodiversity
  2. Climate change
  3. International waters
  4. Ozone depletion
  5. Land degradation and
  6. Persistent Organic Pollutants

Global Environment Facility – Structure

The GEF has a unique governing structure organized around an Assembly, the Council, the Secretariat, 18 Agencies, a Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) and the Evaluation Office.

Global Environment Facility – Financing Important Global Conventions working on Environment

GEF also serves as financial mechanism for following conventions

  1. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) .
  2. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNECCC) .
  3. UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) .
  4. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).
  5. Minamata Convention on Mercury
  • Although the Global Environment Facility is not linked to Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete Ozone Layer formally, it supports its implementation in countries with the economies in transition.

2) News:- FAO issues locust alertfor India 

About FAO :-

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

Headquarters: Rome, Italy

Founded: 16 October 1945

Goal of FAO: Their goal is to achieve food security for all and make sure that people have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy lives.

FAO Council –

Origin: Established by the Conference at its Third Session (1947) to replace the original “Executive Committee of FAO” in accordance with a recommendation of the Preparatory Commission on World Food Proposals.

Purpose: The Council, within the limits of the powers, acts as the Conference’s executive organ between sessions.

  • It exercises functions dealing with the world food and agriculture situation and related matters, current and prospective activities of the Organization, including its Programme of Work and Budget, administrative matters and financial management of the Organization and constitutional matters.

3) News:-Issue compulsory licences forgeneric Remdesivir: CPI(M) nu io

All about Compulsory Licensing :-

Introduction:

Compulsory licenses are authorizations given to a third-party by the Controller General to make, use or sell a particular product or use a particular process which has been patented, without the need of the permission of the patent owner. This concept is recognised at both national as well as international levels, with express mention in both (Indian) Patent Act, 1970 and TRIPS Agreement. 

India’s first ever compulsory license was granted by the Patent Office on March 9, 2012, to Natco Pharma for the generic production of Bayer Corporation’s Nexavar, a life saving medicine used for treating Liver and Kidney Cancer. Bayers sold this drug at exorbitant rates, with one month’s worth of dosage costing around Rs 2.8 Lakh. Natco Pharma offered to sell it around for Rs 9000, making it affordable for people belonging to every stratum. 

Body

There are certain pre-requisite conditions, given under sections 84-92, which need to be fulfilled if a compulsory license is to be granted in favour of someone.

As per Section 84, any person, regardless of whether he is the holder of the license of that Patent, can make a request to the Controller for grant of compulsory license on expiry of three years, when any of the following conditions is fulfilled –

  • the reasonable requirements of the public with respect to the patented invention have not been satisfied
  • the patented invention is not available to the public at a reasonably affordable price
  • the patented invention is not worked in the territory of India. 

Compulsory licenses can also be issued suo motu by the Controller under section 92, pursuant to a notification issued by the Central Government if there is either a “national emergency” or “extreme urgency” or in cases of “public non-commercial use”.

Issues related to Compulsory License

  • Creation of Gray Market – In case of compulsory licensing, where the generic company (licensee) is given rights to manufacture and sell the patented drug to the target country only for which the compulsory license is granted but instead, the company itself or its dealers sell the drug to other countries also. Also when compulsory license is granted to some company for manufacture of a certain drug then some other generic companies also start making same drug without any license.
  • Difference in standards of National Emergency – no fixed standardized definition of national health emergency is available. Having a fixed, narrow and rigid definition of national emergency which is applicable to all the countries is a twisted task because every country has their own health problems, different diseases, lifestyle and population.
  • Apprehensions of the Patent holder – Applicant of compulsory license who has not spent a single penny on the invention cannot be equated with the inventor. Certain patent holders are of the view that compulsory license will dishearten the inventors and will discourage further innovative activities.
  • Royalty Free Practice or Low Royalty – it is expected that royalty free grant of compulsory license gives chance to local or small industries to develop and utilize patented invention. This enhances their manufacturing skills and efficiency which is helpful for their future development and that of nation and society as well. But still patentee must be given some royalty as per the agreement.

News : – All about Community Policing

  • The Basic Principle Underlying Community Policing is that ‘A Policeman is a Citizen with Uniform and a Citizen is a Policeman without Uniform’
  • It is defined as a law enforcement philosophy that allows police to continuously operate in the same area in order to create a stronger bond with the citizens living and working in that area.
  • It helps in reducing the trust deficit between police and public as it requires the police to work with the community for prevention and detection of crime, maintenance of public order, and resolving local conflicts, with the objective of providing a better quality of life and sense of security.
  • Examples of Community Policing in India are:
    • Janamaithri Suraksha Project: Kerala
    • Joint Patrolling Committees: Rajasthan
    • Meira Paibi: Assam
    • Community Policing Project: West Bengal
    • Maithri: Andhra Pradesh
    • Mohalla Committees: Maharashtra

Editorial :-

How to Counter China

How to counter China

China’s economic opening-up has left India behind, contributing to a military imbalance. In 1987, both countries’ nominal GDP were almost equal. China’s economy was nearly five times larger than India’s in 2019.

What are the Constraints for India :-

The government’s near-term attention may be consumed by tending to the swelling ranks of the poor. Limited fiscal and monetary tools, and dried-up private financing, constrain India’s options. Heightened vigilance along the LAC demands summoning scarce resources. Defence budgets were already tightening. If India cannot close the economic gap and build military muscle, Beijing may feel emboldened to probe the subcontinent’s land and maritime periphery.

The root causes of India’s economic woes can be traced to a slowdown in reforms. In 1991, India enacted changes allowing markets to set commodity prices but did not similarly liberalise land, labour and capital. Nearly 30 years after historic reforms, Prime Minister Narendra Modi has the opportunity to launch big, structural change, to eventually resume growth above 8% and keep China at arm’s length.

WHAT SHOULD INDIA DO ?

India urgently needs increased exports and investments to provide more well-paying jobs, technology, and know-how.

Businesses purchase cost-efficient inputs overseas for use in higher value, manufactured exports. Before committing to long-term, multi-billion investments, companies often want to test India’s market through international sales. Liberalisation remains the tried-and-true path to competitiveness.

If India can unite its people and rapidly strengthen capabilities, it will likely discover that China is kept more honest. The choices that India makes to recapture consistent, high growth will determine its future. 

Editorial 2:- The search for unity in a moment of crisis

As per author two major issues were seen in this Lockdown :-

First, we failed in dealing adequately with the tremendous distress caused to migrant labourers.

Second, we failed to make the fight against COVID-19 a common endeavour, irrespective of caste or community. Instead, sadly, the discourse was communalised, with one community being targeted even though its members were as much victims of the pandemic as were others.

As per Author we poorly managed the migrant crisis, we did not anticipated this , while the extension of lockdown was in consultation with states, the initiation was tragic as it was not consulted.

The Communal Angle :-

While the fight against the pandemic was an opportunity to unite us, sadly, the Tablighi Jamaat issue was used to profile Muslims. This became so overt that it attracted international opprobrium with some West Asian countries and Canada taking action against overseas Indians engaging in Islamophobia.

Historical Glory of india :-

Through centuries people have come to India and made it their home. To quote Firaq: “Sar zamiin-e Hind par Aqwaam-e Aalam ke Firaq qaafile baste gaye, Hindostan banta gayaa (Caravans from all over the world settled in this land and shaped India)”.

The emergence of Vedic religion (Hinduism) dates back to second millennium BCE. Buddhism and Jainism emerged in sixth century BCE. Jews came after the fall of Jerusalem. Early Christians came and settled in the south. They were followed by Parsis and Baha’is, persecuted in their homelands. Muslim Arab traders came and settled soon after the rise of Islam. Then came Muslim conquerors. Emperors like Ashoka and Akbar were exemplars in promoting religious harmony. Inter-religious tolerance, embedded in our life and culture, is reflected throughout our history in the writings of Bulleh Shah, Nanak, Kabir, Rahim, Amir Khusrau, Ravi Das and others. Sufi dargahs are visited by lakhs of non-Muslims. Secularism is based on the pluralist and syncretic character of the society with Sarva Dharma Sambhava being the guiding principle. That is the backdrop in which independent India’s chosen destiny was to be a non-theocratic state.

Editorial 3:- Three messages

Message to China :- Calling this the “era of evolution” or development (Vikasvaad), Mr. Modi said that the “era of colonial expansion” (Vistaarvaad) is over. He said that in the past, expansionist forces have done great harm to humanity, and had been “erased or forced to relent”.

The message to Beijing was this: it must not engage in territorial aggression across its boundaries with countries from Central Asia to the South China Sea, including India, and it must also recall its own anger against imperialism, that so many in the PRC’s leadership have decried.

Message to the World Community :- The Prime Minister also addressed other countries that are viewing the growing seriousness of the two-month long stand-off with concern, as he spoke about India’s tradition of peace with bravery, indicating that diplomatic options would be exhausted before any action.

Message to India and Soldiers :- To his domestic audience, the address signified the government’s determination to face the challenge at the Line of Actual Control and to focus on national priorities of infrastructure and economic development. Finally, he addressed the soldiers themselves, as he spoke of the valour of the men who have been engaged in the clashes along the LAC, including the Galwan confrontation in which 20 Indian soldiers were killed.

Editorial 4

One Nation One Voter ID

Source – The Hindu

Syllabus – GS 2 – Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

Context –The stark indignity that many internal migrants endured on their long march home suggests that they are perceived as being politically powerless as they do not form part of voter banks. This calls for considering One Nation One Voter ID as a policy measure to resolve the issue.

Data on Eligible voters

  1. Total number of registered voters – India currently has over 91.05 crore registered voters and in the 2019 general election, a record 67.4%, i.e., 61.36 crore voters, cast their vote.
  2. Registered voters who don’ cast vote – 29.68 crore
  • National Election Study surveys have shown that about 10% of registered voters refrain from voting due to a lack of interest in politics. That leaves approximately 20 crore voters who want to vote but are unable to do so.

Current model’s of voter portability

  1. Service voters (government employees) posted away from home can vote through the Electronically Transmitted Postal Ballot System (ETPBS).
  2. Classified service voters (e.g., military personnel) can do so through their proxies.
  3. For senior citizens – In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Election Commission of India (ECI) has made it possible for senior citizens above the age of 65 to vote by postal ballot, given that they are at greater risk from exposure to the novel coronavirus.

Plight of Internal migrants

  1. Total number of internal migrants – Internal migrant workers constitute about 13.9 crore as in the Economic Survey of 2017, that is nearly a third of India’s labour force.
  2. Issues they face for voting –
  • Lack of proof of residence –  Internal migrant workers do not enroll as voters in their place of employment since they find proof of residence hard to provide.
  • Not affordable – Many are seasonal migrants who would rather vote in their villages if they could afford to return home.

Suggested solution for migrant workers –

  1. Immediate measure– Migrants should be able to physically vote in their city of work based on the address on their existing voter IDs and duration of their temporary stay.
  2. Long term measure– Aadhaar-linked voter-ID based solution to enable electors to cast their votes digitally from anywhere in the country.

Way forward – Ensuring that every Indian who is eligible to vote can do so must be a central mission for the ECI. We must demonstrate the political will to usher in ‘One Nation One Voter ID,’ to ensure native ballot portability and empower the forgotten migrant voter. Once migrant workers get to exercise their franchise, we expect that we will see a change in how they are treated.

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