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The Hindu Newspaper 07/07/2020

1)Consider the following statements with respect to State of World Population Report 2019

  1. It is the flagship report of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).
  2. The report includes, for the first time, data on women’s ability to make decisions over three key areas – sexual intercourse with their partner, contraception use and health care.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?

  • a.  1 only
  • b.  2 only
  • c.  Both 1 and 2
  • d.  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : d

  • India accounts for over one-sixth of the world’s population in 2019 (1.37 billion out of 7.71 billion) and has grown at an rate (1.2% per year between 2010 and 2019) that is just over the world growth rate (1.2%), according to State of the World Population 2019, the flagship report of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).
  • The report includes, for the first time, data on women’s ability to make decisions over three key areas – sexual intercourse with their partner, contraception use and health care.

2)Consider the following pairs with respect to GI Tag

  1. Dindigul lock – Telangana
  2. Kandangi saree – Tamil Nadu

Which of the pair(s) given above is/are incorrectly matched?

  • a.  1 only
  • b.  2 only
  • c.  Both 1 and 2
  • d.  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : a

  • Two well-known products from Tamil Nadu — Dindigul lock and Kandangi saree — have been recently given the Geographical Indication (GI) tag by The Geographical Indications Registry in Chennai.

3)With the reference to the Ancient Indian history, the term  ‘cire perdue’ process was used for making of the?

  • a.  Cave Paintings
  • b.  Metal sculptures
  • c.  Coin mintings
  • d.  Branding of Horses

Answer : b

News :- 1.4 lakh familiesreach MGNREGA’s annual work limit.:- At least 1.4 lakh poor rural households have already completed their quota of 100 days of work under MGNREGA in the first three months of the year, and will not be eligible for further benefits under the rural employment guarantee scheme for the rest of the year. Another seven lakh households have completed 80 days and are on the verge of running out of work as well, according to the scheme’s database.

Activists are Suggesting for Increasing the no. Of work days to 200 or as given in MGNREGA to increasing day to 150 in case of Disaster .

About MGNREGA :-

MGNREGA is a programme meant to be a lifeline to rural workers during this kind of distress circumstances. Therefore, it would be completely unfair to not enable MGNREGA to provide the support that it is designed to give when rural workers are facing the country’s worst challenge of unemployment and limited access to money and foodgrains. Over 12.2 crore labourers work in MGNREGA every year.

About MGNREGA:

The scheme was introduced as a social measure that guarantees “the right to work”. The key tenet of this social measure and labour law is that the local government will have to legally provide at least 100 days of wage employment in rural India to enhance their quality of life.

Key objectives:

  1. Generation of paid rural employment of not less than 100 days for each worker who volunteers for unskilled labour.
  2. Proactively ensuring social inclusion by strengthening livelihood base of rural poor.
  3. Creation of durable assets in rural areas such as wells, ponds, roads and canals.
  4. Reduce urban migration from rural areas.
  5. Create rural infrastructure by using untapped rural labour.

The following are the eligibility criteria for receiving the benefits under MGNREGA scheme:

  1. Must be Citizen of India to seek NREGA benefits.
  2. Job seeker has completed 18 years of age at the time of application.
  3. The applicant must be part of a local household (i.e. application must be made with local Gram Panchayat).
  4. Applicant must volunteer for unskilled labour.

Key facts related to the scheme:

  1. The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), Govt of India is monitoring the entire implementation of this scheme in association with state governments

News :- Humayus Tomb : Humayun’s tomb (Hindustani: Maqbara-i Humayun) is the tomb of the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Delhi, India. The tomb was commissioned by Humayun’s first wife and chief consort, Empress Bega Begum (also known as Haji Begum), in 1569-70, and designed by Mirak Mirza Ghiyas and his son, Sayyid Muhammad,[8] Persian architects chosen by her. It was the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent.

News:-

Editorial : – Rolling back the induced livelihood shock

Central Theme :- Specific policy measures can reverse the lockdown-created trauma and stop it from snowballing into chronic poverty

Data on Poverty :- According to the household consumption expenditure reported in the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS), 2017-18 (which replaces the employment-unemployment surveys of the National Sample Survey Office) and applying State-specific poverty lines (used by the erstwhile Planning Commission in 2011 based on the Tendulkar Committee recommendations, adjusted with current price indices), about 42% or around 56 crore people were ‘officially’ poor before the lockdown was announced. Highlighting how closely packed people are towards the lower half of the consumption expenditure distribution, another 20 crore people were within a narrow band 20% above the poverty line.

Some other Poverty Estimate Methodology :-

As per author PLFS data extrapolated for the year 2020 suggest that about an additional 40 crore people were pushed below the poverty line due to the lockdown.

Poverty Deepening :- Those who were already poor are going to suffer a further worsening in their quality of life, a phenomenon known as poverty deepening.

Author Says that the response to such grave Crisis has not been proper :  A token increase of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) wage by ₹20 (₹182 to ₹202) seems like a joke in the light of the overall magnitude of the crisis.

Suggestion by author :-

1)A revamped, expanded NREGA needs to be made the fulcrum of the rural recharge. The demand for work is anticipated to increase by 25% with reverse migration-fuelled increase in rural labour supply. The revamped scheme would require providing 90 million workers guaranteed employment of 20 days of work/month for at least the next six months. 

2)Universalisation of the Public Distribution System has been widely talked about but needs better equity focus in implementation. It should not exclude the Marginalised communities. Identifying the most vulnerable and including them into the programme before expanding it to the relatively better-off. The exclusion errors of IT-based attempts to coverage have huge social costs in the form of accentuated hunger.

3)Given the magnitude of the destabilisation, an urban employment guarantee programme becomes a dire necessity to stabilise the urban economy.A ‘direct’ employment programme implemented through municipal corporations could be introduced to guarantee 20 days of work.

Editorial :-

India’s foreign relations and the course of history

Source: The Hindu

Syllabus: GS 2 India and its neighbourhood- relations

Context: Analysing the perception of national interest by different generations of leadership.

Background:

  • The Indian PM made a public and undisguised reference to China’s expansionism in his address to Indian troops.
  • China rejected the allegation of expansionism and said that they had signed boundary agreements with all except two of its neighbours.

Approaches of former governments in Foreign Policy:

  • Nehru’s approach:
    • China policy:
      • He was convinced that China would not attack India and his Defence Minister had likely played a big part in inclining Nehru towards this conviction.
      • None of his advisers cautioned him against this miscalculation as most of them had no experience in foreign relations.
      • He was not guided by any ideological considerations and still dreamt of India playing a big role on the world stage and believed that China could be a partner in that endeavor.
    • Kashmir policy:
      • No Himalayan blunder:
        • When a ceasefire was called for in January 1949, it was not because he was pacifist by nature or that he trusted the UN or any other country to label Pakistan as aggressor and persuade it to vacate the aggression.
        • Ground Reality: TheIndian Army was in no position to run over the whole of Jammu and Kashmir at that time which has been definitively and conclusively brought out by respected scholars as well as in the official history of the war published by the Defence Ministry.
      • No ideological bias:
        • The writer believed that national interest was the guiding principle in foreign policy of Nehru as he described foreign policy as essentially selfish in a response to a letter by Albert Einstein.
        • Interest with West: India needed technology and other assistance which he convinced could be obtained only from America.
        • He looked towards Soviet Union only after the Americans concluded the military agreement with Pakistan.
      • His mistakes and the blunder over China were caused by wrong assessments and not due to any ideological factors.
    • Indira Gandhi approach:
      • “Verify and still not trust approach”:
        • Her basic approach was that there is no such thing as trust in international relations.
        • She expects to have normal and peaceful relations with Pakistan in future but never with China as it is an expansionist power.
      • Handling Pakistan:
        • She is accused of being naive and too trusting when she allowed Pakistan’s 90,000 prisoners of war (POWs) to return to their country without getting anything in return.
        • Available options: Whether she should have asked Pakistan to vacate all the territory it had occupied in Jammu and Kashmir or she should have kept the POWs in our country for long.

Conclusion:

  • The previous leaderships must be held accountable for the mistakes or blunders they might have committed but they acted in the prevailing circumstances according to their perception of national interest.
  • For example-One government might conclude that the civil nuclear deal with the US served India’s national interest and some other government in different circumstances may think otherwise.

News :- China reports suspected case of ‘Black Death’ plague. All you need to know:-

News: China has issued a warning after a hospital reported a case of suspected bubonic plague also known as the “Black Death”.

Facts:

  • Plague: It is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, a zoonotic bacteria usually found in small mammals and their fleas.
  • Types:
    • Bubonic plague: It infects a person’s lymphatic system (which is a part of their immune system) causing inflammation in the lymph nodes.If left untreated, the bubonic plague can convert into either pneumonic or septicemic plague.Symptoms include fever, chills, weakness and headaches.  
    • Pneumonic plague: It is the ‘most virulent form of plague’ and can be fatal within 24 to 72 hours.It occurs when the bacteria infects the lungs.It is the type of plague that can be transmitted from human to human.Symptoms are chest pain, fever and cough.
    • Septicemic plague: It happens when the bacteria enters the bloodstream and multiplies there.
  • Treatment: Plague can be treated with antibiotics and recovery is common if treatment starts early.In areas where there is a plague outbreak, people with symptoms should go to a health centre for evaluation and treatment.

News: Assam government has decided to upgrade the Dehing Patkai wildlife sanctuary into a national park amid an ongoing row over allowing coal mining within its jurisdiction.

Facts:

  • Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary: The sanctuary is also known as the Jeypore Rainforest.It is located in the districts of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia in Assam.
  • Vegetation:It is a deciduous rainforest interspersed with semi-evergreen and lush green flora.
  • Habitat: Chinese pangolin, Flying fox, Rhesus macaque, Assamese macaque, Himalayan black bear, Lesser Adjutant Stork, White and Slender-billed Vulture, Leopard, Golden Cat, Jungle Cat and Marbled Cat.

Note: Post upgradation, Dehing Patkai will be the sixth national park in Assam — the other five being Kaziranga, Nameri, Manas, Orang and Dibru-Saikhowa.

Additional Facts:

          Wildlife Sanctuary             National Park
It is a protected area constituted for the protection and conservation of wildlife or its environment.They are declared in areas that are considered to be of adequate ecological, geomorphological and natural significance.It is a protected area constituted for the protection and conservation of wildlife or its environment.They are declared in areas that are considered to be of adequate ecological, geomorphological and natural significance.
Some restricted human activities are allowed inside the Sanctuary areaNohuman activity is permitted inside the national park except for the ones permitted by the Chief Wildlife Warden of the state.
Boundaries of sanctuaries are not well definedBoundaries of a national park are well defined
Wildlife Sanctuary can be upgraded as a National Park.National Park cannot be downgraded as a Sanctuary

News :- Drug Trade :- Golden crescent

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