The Hindu Newspaper 12/06/2020

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1)Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve is located in which of the following states?))

  • a.  Jharkhand
  • b.  Chhattisgarh
  • c.  Maharashtra
  • d.  Madhya Pradesh

Answer : c

2)Consider the following statements with respect to Ecological Succession

  1. Primary Succession occurs when an ecological community first enters into a new form of habitat that it has not been present in before.
  2. Secondary Succession occurs in already established habitat.
  3. In Climax stage, an ecosystem becomes balanced and there is a little risk of an interfering event to influence the environment.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • a.  3 only
  • b.  1 and 2 only
  • c.  2 and 3 only
  • d.  1, 2 and 3

Answer : d

3)What is the main objective of Utkarsh 2022 sometimes seen in the news recently?

  • a.  To clean the most polluted rivers in the state of Uttarakhand by 2022
  • b.  To improve regulation and supervision of the Reserve Bank of India
  • c.  To promote Uttarkashi as one of the top tourist destination around the world
  • d.  It is a three year action plan to eradicate Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in the state of Uttar Pradesh 

Answer : b

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) board has recently finalised a three- year roadmap to improve regulation and supervision, among other functions of the central bank (RBI).
  • This medium term strategy — named Utkarsh 2022 — is in line with the global central banks’ plan to strengthen the regulatory and supervisory mechanism.

 

News:- About ICMR:- ICMR is India’s apex scientific body for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research.

It was established in 1911 as Indian Research Fund Association (IRFA) making it one of oldest and largest medical research bodies in the world.

The ICMR functions under Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

It is headquartered in New Delhi.

Its Governing Body is presided over by Health Minister.

It is assisted in scientific and technical matters by Scientific Advisory Board comprising eminent experts in different biomedical disciplines.

What is A Sero Test :  a test of blood serum from a group of individual

News:- NIRF Ranking:-It was launched on 29th September 2015, ranks institutions based on objective and verifiable criteria. It has been made available separately for Engineering, Management, Pharmaceutical, Architecture, Humanities, Law and for Universities.

The first ranks were declared on 4th April 2016.

Under the universities category, the IISc topped the list, followed by Jawaharlal Nehru University and Banaras
Hindu University.

Miranda House got the first rank in the colleges category, followed by Lady Shri Ram College for Women and Hindu College.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Human Resource Development Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank said at the NIRF release. “The global agencies give us a lower ranking due to ‘perception’, which is a subjective parameter, and I do not agree with it,” he said.
The NIRF, which was launched by the HRD Ministry in 2016, gives higher weight to parameters such as teaching and learning, student and faculty strength, use of financial resources, research papers and patents and graduation outcomes.

The Indian Institutes of Management at Ahmedabad, Bengaluru and Kolkata took the top positions in the management category. National Law School of India University is the best for studying law, while the
IIT Kharagpur is the best place to study architecture, according to the NIRF.

News:- Govt. considering universal basic income, says NHRC :-

As a part of the third round of the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) process, which is done every four and a half years(4.5 years ), the NHRC submitted its midterm report to the UN agency recently.

What is Universal Periodic Review:-The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a unique process which involves a review of the human rights records of all UN Member States. The UPR is a State-driven process, under the auspices of the Human Rights Council, which provides the opportunity for each State to declare what actions they have taken to improve the human rights situations in their countries and to fulfil their human rights obligations. 

As one of the main features of the Council, the UPR is designed to ensure equal treatment for every country when their human rights situations are assessed. 

 

What are some of the Reforms India Can Take as Per NHRC:-

1)More funds for health:The report stated that there had been a consensus on the need for increasing budgetary
allocation for health and nutrition by the Centre and state governments.

2)Universal Basic Income can be on cards.

News:- Lion census method outdated: experts:- An outdated methodology and the true mortality from a
virus affecting India’s lions dent the credibility of the Gujarat government’s claims on its lion population. Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Union Environment Minister tweeted results of the 2020 Asiatic Lion Census that put the number of lions at 674, a 28% rise from 2015.

Why was the Lion Census not conducted this year?

Conducted once every five years, the Lion Census was due on June 5-6 this year, but was postponed after the lockdown was announced on March 24. Over 1,500 forest guards, foresters and range forest officers were deputed on policing duty to enforce the lockdown.

So, how were the numbers estimated?

Through Poonam Avlokan, which is a monthly in-house exercise carried out every full moon. Field staff and officers spend 24 hours assessing the number of lions and their locations in their respective jurisdictions. It was a mechanism developed by the Forest Department in 2014 as part of preparations for the 2015 Lion Census.

This time, the exercise was undertaken from 2 pm Friday to 2 pm Saturday. 

How is this ‘observation’ different from a regular census?

The Lion Census involves larger participation. Around 2,000 officers, experts and volunteers were involved in the 2015 Census. That makes the Census more transparent. The lion ‘observation’ this month was conducted by around 1,400 forest staff and a few experts.

Why is it Outdated:- 100 years old method to count lions that would not “stand the scrutiny of contemporary
science”. This approach, called the Direct Beat Verification or Block Count Method.

News:- Trump targets ICC with sanctions over Afghanistan war crimes case:-U.S. President Donald
Trump on Thursday issued an executive order authorising sanctions against individuals involved in an International
Criminal Court (ICC) investigation into whether U.S. forces committed war crimes in Afghanistan.

About ICC :- The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[2] is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague, Netherlands. The ICC has jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. It is intended to complement existing national judicial systems and it may therefore exercise its jurisdiction only when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute criminals.

Rome Statute adopted: 17 July 1998

Roman Statute Entered into force:- 1 July 2002

The ICC began functioning on 1 July 2002, the date that the Rome Statute entered into force.

The U.S. government has never been a member of the court, established in 2002.

News:- First estimation exercise of Indian gaur in Nilgiris in recent years:-The first population estimation
exercise of the Indian gaur carried out in the Nilgiris Forest Division in recent years, which was conducted
in February of this year, has revealed that more than an estimated 2,000 Indian gaurs inhabit the entire division.

Concerns:- Worryingly, the exercise has also revealed that the majority of the animals in “conflict-prone”  animals in
“conflict – Prone” areas in the division live perilously close to human habitations due to habitat loss and fragmentation, exacerbating the probability of having problematic interactions with humans.

Nilgiri covers the states of Kerala Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

Editorial of the Day :- 

Role of Quiet Diplomacy in easing tensions with China

Source: The Hindu

Syllabus: GS 2-India and its neighborhood- relations.

Context: On June 6, India and China had reached an agreement for a partial disengagement of troops from some of the points of stand-off along the Line of Actual Control (LAC).

Background: 

  • China had multiple incursions in the last one month. China’s moves may be motivated by its insecurities at India’s recent improvements in infrastructure on the Indian side of the LAC.
  • Agreed by Corps Commander-level talks: Both sides identified five locations of conflict in the western sector in Ladakh. A separate ongoing stand-off in NakuLa in Sikkim was not on the agenda.
  • The five spots include Patrolling Points 14, 15 and 17, Chushul and the north bank of Pangong
  • A broad plan has been agreed to hold a series of talks at lower ranks of Colonel, Brigadier and Major General at four of those points in the coming week to take forward the disengagement process.
  • Problem with PangongLake: There appear to be serious differences which may require another round of higher level talks at the Corps Commander level.
  • Changing status quo: The Fingers 1 to 8, running from west to east, refer to mountain spurs on the north bank. The Chinese troops have dug in at the Finger 4 area on the lake’s northern bank and still remainpresent on India’s side of the LAC which runs at Finger 8.

China is an assertive power and dealing with it is not easy. India needs quiet diplomacy along with strong military resistance.

Strategy in dealing with China:

    • Quiet diplomacy coupled with strong military posture: Previous governments have followed this approach along with allowing the adversary a way out at the same time.
    • Depsang incursion 2013:
    • The Indian government had privately conveyed to China that an upcoming visit by China’s Premier would be off if the stand-off didn’t end.
    • The key to arriving at a successful outcome was keeping public rhetoric calm and steady and displaying strength and giving the adversary a way out.
  • Chunar stand-off 2014:
    • India quietly but forcefully stopped the Chinese road-buildingand deployed 2,500 soldiers which outnumber the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). As a result, PLA withdrew.
    • Both sides disengaged and followed a moratorium on patrolling into contested areas for months.
  • Doklam crisis 2017: 
    • Indian troops crossed over into Bhutan to stop a Chinese road construction on territory India sees as Bhutanese and accused China of unilaterally altering the India-Bhutan-China trijunction.
    • Restoring status quo: Beijing demanded an unconditional withdrawal. Both sides disengaged without divulging the terms. It later emerged that the deal struck resulted in India withdrawing first and then China stopped construction.

There is a 24/7 demand on social media for information and unprecedented capacity for disinformation.

Role of government during such times:

    • Opposition in confidence:It needs to keep the Opposition informed.
    • Engaging with media: It needs to proactively engage with the media even if that may be through low-key engagement that does not escalate into a public war of words. It is in the government’s own interests to ensure what’s reported is well-informed and not speculative or exaggerated.
    • Idea of public debate: The expectations of having a public debate about the difficulty of every border stand-off or for the PM to weigh in when negotiations are ongoing — need to be tempered. This will only risk inflaming tensions and reduce the free hand for both sides.
    • The broader objective shouldn’t get lost in political debates: The objective is to ensure India’s security interests remain protected and the status quo on India’s borders isn’t changed by force.

Way Forward

There is the urgent need for better communication to address the strategic mistrust that prevails on both sides of the LAC.

 

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