The Hindu Newspaper 15th March 2020

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Questions of the Day :-

1)‘Mitra Shakti’ is a joint military exercise between India and

a) Sri Lanka

b) Seychelles

c) Maldives

d) Mauritius

2)Recently India has decided to sign a ‘Polar Science Cooperation Agreement’ with which of the following countries?

a) Sweden

b) Norway

c) Canada

d) Finland

3)The criteria for identifying Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups are: –

  1. Low level of literacy
  2. Economic backwardness
  3. A declining or stagnant population

Select the correct code:

a) 1 and 2

b) 2 and 3

c) 1 and 3

d) All of the above

1) SAARC And G-7 Conferences :- The conference, whichwill include leaders of sevencountries — Afghanistan,Bangladesh, Bhutan, India,Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka —and the special adviser(Health) to Pakistan Prime Minister Imran Khan. These are SAARC members.

G-7 Members :- G7 countriesCanada,France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdomand the United States .

2)Yes Bank and bonds :- Here we will learn about AT-1 Bonds.

First let’s understand what’s Basel III Norms :- Basel III norms were a set of rules that banking regulators around the world came up with after the global financial crisis in 2008, to strengthen bank balance sheets. Requiring banks to have their own skin in the game in the form ofpermanent capital, before taking on deposits or loans, is one of the underlying principles of Basel III norms.

TheRBI’s version of Basel III norms requires Indian banks to hold a minimum capital amounting to 11.5% of their risk weighted loans. Of this, about 9% is supposed to be the bank’score capital (called Tier 1), with 5.5% in equity.

AT-1 bonds are issued by banks to supplement their permanent or Tier 1 capital which is mainly made up of equity shares.

AT-1 bonds, also known as Additional Tier 1 bonds, are unsecured perpetual bonds issued by banks to shore up their capital base to meet Basel III requirements.

AT-1 bonds are supposedto remain permanently with the bank and pay investors interest for perpetuity.

Only affluent investors who are willing to take on higher risk of a capital loss for higher yields.

3)How does soap use help in tackling COVID-19?

The grime on our hands contains innumerable viruses and bacteria. Washing with water without using soap helps reduce the amount of microbes but does not remove most of the virus and bacteria completely.

Using soap, therefore, becomes far more effective in removing microbes.

Viruses such as coronavirus, influenza causing viruses, Ebola, Zika have their genetic material encased in a layer of fat called the lipid envelop.

Soap molecules are pin shaped with a head that is waterloving (hydrophilic) andatail that is oilloving (oleophilic). Being oleophilic, the tail portion of the molecule tends to have an affinity forand ‘competes’ with the lipids in the virus envelope. Since the chemical bonds holding the virus together are not very strong, the long oleophilic tail gets inserted intothe envelope and tends to have a ‘crowbar’ effect thatbreaks the lipid envelope of the virus.

Do all viruses have the lipid layer?

No, certain viruses do not have the lipid envelop and are called the non-enveloped viruses. Rotavirus which causes severe diarrhoea, poliovirus, adenovirus that cause pneumonia and even human papillomavirus (HPV) do not contain the lipid envelop.

How do alcohol based hand sanitisers help get ridof coronavirus?Like soap, the alcohol present in hand sanitisers dissolvethe lipid envelop, thus inactivating the virus.

4)TIFR study reveals role of glucose inregulating liver functions, ageing:

An enzyme that goes by the name SIRT1 is known to be associated with regulation of metabolic activities and also ageing and hence has become a target of therapeutics.

A study by researchers from Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (TIFR) shows that glucose controls the function of SIRT1 directly.

A shortage or absence of this control can lead to a diabetic like state,while excess feeding and sustained low levels of SIRT1 can lead to obesity and enhanced ageing.

Every organism has evolved so as to feed and then alternately fast, so it becomes important to understand this cycle. This cycle, known as the feed fast cycle is a basic pattern and the metabolism related to this is largely takencare of by the liver.

“In normal healthy individuals, SIRT1 protein levels are known to increase during fasting and decrease during feed“.

5)The time is right forOneHealth science :- As India goes into emergency mode to tackle the potentially catastrophic impacts of the novel coronavirus (COVID19), the ‘Kerala model’ is being widely cited as an example to emulate. In 2018, Kerala reacted quickly and efficiently to tackle the Nipah virus outbreak and successfully managed to confine it to 23 cases.

This success has been credited to thestrong public health infrastructure and the political will to quickly seek help from a multi disciplinary team of national and international experts.

The Kerala Nipah virus out break was thought to have come from fruit bats.

These diseases, which “spillover” from animals to humans are referred to as zoonotic diseases, and representmore than 60% of emerging infectious diseases worldwide.

Understanding this critical intersection between human health, domestic and wild animal health and the environment requires a new integrated framework — a paradigm called ‘OneHealth’.

Kyasanur Forest Disease:- OneHealth helped discover the source of Kyasanur Forest Disease(KFD), a highly dangerous haemorrhagic fever more threatening than COVID19. It was locally called ‘monkey fever’ because of the links between monkey deaths and human infections in Shimoga District of Karnataka where it emergedin 1957.

Fact :- Birdman of India – Salim Ali.

6)Modern Tsar:- Russia’s  Parliament approved  a  constitutional amendment  that  ‘resets’  the limit  of  two  six year  terms  for President  Vladimir  Putin, potentially  allowing him  to  rule  until  2036.

7)The Global Tuberculosis Report, 2019 of the World Health Organization says Indiahas the highest number of TB and drugresistant TB cases in the world.








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