The Hindu Newspaper 19th April 2020

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1)Which of the following are the tributaries of Brahmaputra
1. Manas
2. Raidak
3. Shyok
4. Dhansiri
5. Soan
Select the correct answer code:
a) 1, 3, 4
b) 1, 2, 4
c) 1, 2, 3, 4
d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

2)What is the correct sequence of occurrence of the rivers in Peninsular India as one proceeds from South to
1. Ponnaiyar
2. Krishna
3. Palar
4. Vamsadhara
Select the correct answer code:
a) 1-2-3-4
b) 2-3-1-4
c) 3-1-2-4
d) 1-3-2-4

3)Which of the following pairs given below is/are correctly matched?
Mountain State
1. Abor Hills.    Sikkim
2. Mikir Hills     Assam
3. Garhjat Hills  Odisha
Select the correct answer code:
a) 1, 2
b) 1, 3
c) 2, 3
d) 1 ,2, 3

The Abor Hills is in Arunachal Pradesh.

Map of the Day :- Australia

1) News :- Govt. nod mandatory for FDI from neighbouring countries

In a move that will restrict Chinese investments, the Centre has made prior government approval mandatory for foreign direct investments from countries which share a land border with India. Previously, only investments from Pakistan and Bangladesh faced such restrictions.

Main agenda : -The Ministry of Commerce and Industry note makes clear its objective is to curb opportunistic takeovers or acquisitions due to the current COVID19 pandemic.

What does the Rule Say :-

  • “A non-resident entity can invest in India, subject to the FDI Policy except in those sectors/activities which are prohibited,”.
  • An entity of acountry, which shares land border with India or where the beneficial owner of an investment into India is situated in or is a citizen of any such country, can invest only under the Government route.
  • India shares land borders with Pakistan, Afghanistan,China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Investors from countries not covered by the new policy only have to inform the RBI after a transaction rather than asking for prior permission from the relevant government department.

Basics of FDI :-

Foreign direct investment (FDI) is when a company takes controlling ownership in a business entity in another country. With FDI, foreign companies are directly involved with day-to-day operations in the other country.

This means they aren’t just bringing money with them, but also knowledge, skills and technology.

Generally, FDI takes place when an investor establishes foreign business operations or acquires foreign business assets, including establishing ownership or controlling interest in a foreign company.

Routes through which India gets FDI:-

Automatic route: The non-resident or Indian company does not require prior nod of the RBI or government of India for FDI.

Govt route: The government’s approval is mandatory. The company will have to file an application through Foreign Investment Facilitation Portal, which facilitates single-window clearance.

The application is then forwarded to the respective ministry, which will approve/reject the application in consultation with the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce.

2)News :- Huge crack develops on Ambukuthi hills in Kerala

A huge crack has developed on the eastern part of Ambukuthi hills, on which the Edakkal caves are situated.

3) Location Fact :-

Sopore :- Baramulla district of Jammu and Kashmir.

Eve’s beach in Kovalam, Kerala;

the Vidhana Soudha in Bengaluru;

and the Golconda Fort in Hyderabad

4)Most online content on child sexual abuse from India:- In a global compilation of reports of child sexual abuse material (CSAM) found online, India stands right ontop of the list, with 11.7% of the total reports or at 19.87 lakh reports, followed by Pakistan, which contributes 6.8% of all reports (11.5 lakh reports).

Bangladesh comes in fourth with 5.5 lakh reports and a share of 3.3%.

The National Centre for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) urges peopleto report CSAM found online across the world annually,on their online platform CyberTipline.

5)RT-PCR only confirmatory test:- 

The Union Health Ministry has said that the Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold standard frontline test for COVID-19 and that rapid antibody test cannot replace it.

Use of Rapid Antibody Test:- The Rapid Antibody Test gives us an idea about prevalence of disease in a particular area and thus is used for epidemiological studies and surveillance purpose in hotspots.

It can also be used indistricts which are not hotspots to study emergingtrends

6)South Asia remains an outlier in infections

Not just India but the SAARC region as a whole is seeing a slower increase in novel coronavirus infections, particularly in terms of critical cases.


  • While low testing rates are clearly one reason for the low figures,
  • experts are pointing to the need to study the effects of immunity and
  • the strict lockdown and
  • social distancing measures adopted in India and other South Asian countries — Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives.

7) Science Section :-

What is the difference between a virus and a bacterium?

Bacteria are alive. Each bacterial cell has its own machinery to reproduce itself.

Take a bacterial cell, and put it in a solution containing nutrients, it grows itself and multiplies in millions.

The genes in the cells (genome, made up of DNA molecules, the information contained in which is transcribed as a message to the messenger molecules called RNA), and the message there in is translated into action molecules called proteins, which are the foot soldiers that help the growth and multiplication of the bacterium.

Coronaviruses do not have DNA as their genome, but RNA; in other words,they can only translate and not transcribe.

Thus, they are ‘dead’, unable to renew and grow themselves; they need help.

This they achieve by infecting ‘host cells’ which they bind to, and multiply by the millions.

With no host cell to help, a virus is simply a dead storage box.

8) Explained :- Will convalescent plasma help COVID-19 patients?

People who have recovered from COVID-19 have antibodies to the disease in their blood. Doctors call this convalescent plasma. Researchers hope that convalescent plasma can be given to people with severe COVID19 to boost their ability to fight the virus.

The blood — about 800 ml or so — is collected from the donor through the regular withdrawal process, tested forother pathogens, and if safe, the plasma component is extracted and subsequently used for transfusion on to patients.

Everyone who has suffered from a disease possibly carries what are called neutralising antibodies that when extracted via plasma and transfused on to others with the infection can help their immune system fight it off.

Current status:- Since trials are going on, there is no standardised protocol on how much of convalescent plasma or how often it must be used.

Trials will conclude in a few weeks/months for definitive conclusions to emerge.

The Indian Council of Medical Research has approved Delhi and Kerala to undertake clinical trials, and Tamil Nadu has also applied for permission to conduct trials in the State.

9) Explained -2 : The U.S. freeze on WHO

WHO, a United Nations agency created in 1948, is headquartered in Geneva, and was founded to coordinateand direct the UN’s global health effort.

It has no authority over its 194 member countries and, as is typical for UN agencies, dependson member contributions to carry out its work. Also, as is often the case with UN agencies, WHO is not immune to political motivations and an inertia that often comes with large bureaucracies.

Yet, in this instance, critics and several public health academics have said that Mr. Trump’s attack of the organisation is misplaced.

USA’s Contribution:- The U.S. is the WHO’s largest contributor. The organisation’s funding is of two types

  1. assessments or member dues and
  2. voluntary contributions

For the 2018 and 2019 biennium, the U.S. contributed about 20% of WHO’s budget, according to a National Public Radio (NPR) report.


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