The Hindu Newspaper 20th April 2020

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1) Which of the following are the manifestations of the democratic character of the Indian polity.
1. Universal adult franchise
2. Periodic elections
3. Rule of Law
4. Independence of judiciary
Select the correct answer code:
a) 1, 2, 3
b) 2, 3, 4
c) 1, 3, 4
d) 1, 2, 3, 4

2) Which of the following Statements is/ are correct?
1. The Salary, allowances and other service conditions of the Information Commissioner are similar to those
of Election Commissioner.
2. Information Commissioner is not eligible for reappointment for the same post.
Select the correct answer code:
a) 1 Only
b) 2 Only
c) Both
d) None

3)Consider the following statements.

1. President must consult the Chief Minister of the state while appointing the Governor.
2. Election Commission can take suo-moto decision to disqualify a Member of Parliament.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both
d) None


• President may consult the Chief Minister of the state while appointing the Governor.
• It is not mandatory.
• Election Commission cannot take suo-moto decision to disqualify a Member of Parliament. Election Commission
advises the president on matters relating to the disqualifications of the members of Parliament.

4) Consider the following statements regarding Republic.
1. In a republic, the head of the state is only elected directly.
2. It means vesting of political sovereignty in the people.
3. Absence of any privileged class.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
a) 1, 2
b) 1, 3
c) 2, 3
d) 1, 2, 3

Solution:A republic also means two more things: one, vesting of political sovereignty in the people and not in a single
individual like a king; second, the absence of any privileged class and hence all public offices being opened to every citizen without any discrimination.

Map of the Day :-

News :- E-commerce firms can’t supply non essential Goods :- The Ministry of Home Affairs(MHA) clarified that supply of non-essential goods by ecommerce companies will remain prohibited during the lockdown.

2) Lion Tailed Macaque :-

1. Endangered – IUCN red list


  • Mainly diurnalarboreal, it prefers the upper canopy of primary tropical evergreen rainforest but may also be found in monsoon forest in hilly country and in disturbed forest.
  • It can be found in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala in the western ghat region.
  • Unlike other macaques, it avoids humans


  • Habitat loss and degradation— due to deforestation for logging, conversion of forest to farmland. Logging leads to a scarcity of the fruit on which the monkeys feed, which is particularly devastating. Creation of exotic plantations such as tea, eucalyptus and coffee
  • Hunting — for food, medicinal uses
  • Pet trade
  • Certain features of the reproductive biology and ecology of this species (such as large inter-birth periods, seasonal resource availability, and female competition for mating opportunities) combine to make it intrinsically rare in the wild.

Conservation efforts

Appendix I of CITES

Schedule I, Part I, of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

Protected areas

Kudremukh National Park — Karnatakaa

Periyar National Park — Kerala

Silent Valley National Park — Kerala

Shendurney Sanctuary — Kerala

Indira Gandhi Sanctuary — Tamil Nadu

Kalakkad Sanctuar — Tamil Nadu

Editorial of the Day :-

Central Theme :- Using lessons learnt, a social vaccine can build societal immunity to the devastating effects of pandemics, now and later.

What are Social Vaccines :- So what is a social vaccine? A social vaccine is a metaphor for a series of social and behavioural measures that governments can use to raise public consciousness about unhealthy situations through social mobilisation.

Social mobilisation can empower populations to resist unhealthy practices, increase resilience, and foster advocacy for change.

This can drive political will to take action in the interests of society and hold governments accountable to address the social determinants of health by adopting progressive socio-economic policies and regulatory mechanisms that promote health equity and reduce vulnerability to disease.

A social vaccine addresses barriers and facilitators of behaviour change, whether attitudinal, social, cultural, or economic, and supplements information, education, and communication (IEC) with targeted social and behaviourchange communication (SBCC) strategies.

International Examples :- Uganda and Thailand used these strategies effectively during the HIV/AIDS pandemic to bring down the incidence of HIV infection, before highly active anti retroviral treatment (HAART) was introduced in 1995.

They demonstrated how an effective social vaccine helped “flatten the curve” till effective treatmentswere discovered that dramaticallyreduced mortality, viral loads andinfection transmission.

AIDS was discovered in 1981 and in 1985 it was a pandemic.

What does Social vaccine mean for Government :-

A social vaccine also requires people to hold leaders accountable to invest in:-

  • rapidly scaling uptesting;
  • meeting the basic and economic needs of vulnerable sections;
  • providing psychologicalsupport where needed;
  • not communalising or politicising the pandemic;
  • providing adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) to frontline workers in health, sanitation, transport and other essential services;
  • and not compromising the privacy and dignity of infected individuals and their families in the interest of public health.
  • Building trust is key if government imposed mitigation strategies are to be embraced by the population.
  • Repurposing and funding relevant industries and small and medium businesses to produce materials such as PPE, hand sanitisers and medical equipment; community groups to supply cloth masks, soap, etc., and innovative social marketing of these are other essential components of the social vaccine. The components of thesocial vaccine should be in place before relaxing or lifting the lockdown.

3)About IMF :-

IMF was formed in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference. IMF came into operation on 27th December 1945 and is today an international organisation that consists of 189 member countries.

Headquartered in Washington, D.C.,

IMF focuses on fostering global monetary cooperation, securing financial stability, facilitating and promoting international trade, employment and economic growth around the world.

India was the Founding Member of IMF.

Why Was IMF formed :- The breakdown of the international monetary co-operation during the Great Depression led to the development of IMF which aimed in improving the economic growth and reducing poverty around the world.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was initially formed at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944.

The main objectives of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) are mentioned below:

  • To improve and promote global monetary cooperation of the world.
  • To secure financial stability by eliminating or minimizing the exchange rate stability.
  • To facilitate a balanced international trade.
  • Promoting high employment through economic assistance and sustainable economic growth.
  • To reduce poverty around the world.

4) Goa is first to turn virus free:– Goa on Sunday became thefirst zero COVID-19 State inthe country with the last seven cases also testing negative.

5) About OIC :

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states.

It is the second largest inter-governmental organization after the United Nations.

The organisation states that it is “the collective voice of the Muslim world” and works to “safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony“.

The OIC has permanent delegations to the United Nations and the European Union.

Permanent Secretariat is in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Like NAM again, the OIC is a toothless tigerwhen it comes to dealing with squabbles among member states.

6) Some Art forms in Intangible list :-

Festivals, turbans and rice beer are all part of an exhaustive cultural heritage list:-

1. Pachoti : Folk festival of Pachoti in Assam, where the birth of a baby, particularly a male infant as the tradition“relates to the birth of Krishna”.

2. Kinnar Kanthgeet :- The oral traditions of the transgender community called Kinnar Kanthgeet .

3. Patola Silk :-Gujarat’s Patola silk textiles from Patan with its geometric and figurative patterns also made it to the list.

4. From Jammu and Kashmir, the Kalam Bhat or Qalambaft gharana of Sufiana music in Budgam district and from Ladakh,the Buddhist chanting across both Leh and Kargil districts were on the list of intangible cultural heritage.

5. Khor :- The making of khor, a rice beer, by the Tangkhul community in Manipur as well as other craftsassociated with it.

6. Kalaripayattu :- Kerala’s martial art form

7. Kolam:- Practice of making designs at the entrance of homes and temples called kolam in Kerala, Andhra Pradesh,Tamil Nadu.

8. Various Puppetry:- Different forms of shadow puppet theatre Chamadyacha Bahulya in Maharashtra, Tolu Bommalatta in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, Togalu Gombeyatta inKarnataka, Tolpava Kuthu in Kerala and Ravanchhaya in Odisha — have also been included.



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