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The Hindu Newspaper 21/06/2020

1)Tiangong-2 often seen in the news recently is a

a.  Space Station

b.  Space Telescope

c.  Super Computer

d.  None of the above

Answer : a

Tiangong-2 was a manned Chinese space station that was destroyed upon its controlled re-entry into the Earth’satmosphere over the Pacific Ocean on July 19.

2)The oceanic pole of inaccessibility often called as The Point Nemo refers to?

a.  The most remote location on Earth

b.  The most remote location on Atlantic Ocean

c.  An imaginary line joining the inaccessible areas of the planet Earth

d.  The most remote location on Moon

Answer : a

Point Nemo, officially known as “the oceanic pole of inaccessibility,” or, more simply put, the point in the ocean that is farthest away from land.

The spot is quite literally the middle of nowhere, surrounded by more than 1,000 miles of ocean in every direction.

3) Consider the following statements:

  1. A person who is appointed to be a governor of a state should be an outsider, that is, he/she should not belong to the respected state.
  2. While appointing the governor, the president is required to consult the chief minister of the state concerned.

Which of the above is/are mentioned in Indian Constitution as the qualification for the appointment of a person as a Governor of a State?

a.  1 only

b.  2 only

c.  Both 1 and 2

d.  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : d

The Constitution lays down only two qualifications for the appointment of a person as a governor. These are:

He should be a citizen of India.

He should have completed the age of 35 years.

Additionally, two conventions have also developed in this regard over the years.

He should be an outsider, that is, he should not belong to the state where he is appointed, so that he is free from the local politics.

While appointing the governor, the president is required to consult the chief minister of the state concerned, so that the smooth functioning of the constitutional machinery in the state is ensured.

However, both the conventions have been violated in some of the cases.

News:- Fossil From Antarctica:- In 2011, on the Seymour Island of Antarctica, a group of scientists from South American Nation Chile discovered a fossil 200 meters away from the where the fossil of a 10-meter long Mosasaur (an ancient reptile) was unearthed. The fossil, since then was kept at a museum in Chile and was named ‘the thing’.

News:- CRPF was in News :The Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) refers to seven security forces in India under the authority of Ministry of Home Affairs.

  • Assam Rifles (AR)(under both Home and Defense ministry)
  • Border Security Force (BSF)
  • Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
  • Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
  • Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
  • National Security Guard (NSG)
  • Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)

Each of the seven has its own cadre of officers, but they are headed by officers of the Indian Police Service.

Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF):-The Central Reserve Police Force came into existence as Crown Representative’s Police on 27th July 1939. It became the Central Reserve Police Force on enactment of the CRPF Act on 28th December 1949.

The mission of the Central Reserve Police Force is to enable the government to maintain Rule of Law, Public Order and Internal Security effectively and efficiently, to Preserve National Integrity and Promote Social Harmony and Development by upholding the supremacy of the Constitution.

Broad duties being performed by the CRPF are:

Crowd control

Riot control

Counter Militancy / Insurgency operations.

Dealing with Left Wing Extremism

Overall coordination of large scale security arrangement especially with regard to elections in disturbed areas.

Fighting enemy in the event of War.

Participating in UN peacekeeping Mission as per Govt. policy.

Rescue and Relief operations at the time of Natural Calamities and disasters

News:- IIT-Palakkad develops ultrasound for COVID-19 screening:-

The IIT-Palakkad has developed an automated lung ultrasound (LUS) for COVID19 screening and monitoring through cloud based image analysis and scoring system.
The app, the first of its kind in India, is now available for clinicians to perform automated analysis by just uploading the ultrasound video.

News:- China to set up ‘security agency’ in Hong Kong: China will set up a “national security agency” in Hong Kong to oversee a forthcoming new law aimed at cracking down on dissent in the city, state media said on Saturday.
The new law also would override any existing Hong Kong laws that may
conflict with it once it is implemented.

The future security agency would be established by China’s Central government and would “supervise, guide, coordinate, and support”
the maintenance of national security in the territory.

News:- What are BSI, BSII, BSIII, BSIV and BSVI Emission Norms?

These are emission standards set by the governing body Bharat Safety Emission Standard (BSEB) to regulate the output of pollutants from vehicles plying on the road. The Central Pollution Control Board, under the Ministry of Environment and Forest and Climate Change, sets the permissible pollution levels and timeline to implement the same by vehicle manufacturers. 

The abbreviation of ‘BS’ is Bharat Stage and is suffixed with the iteration of the particular emission norms. The Indian emissions standards are based on the lines of European norms commonly known as EURO 2, EURO 3, and so on. The first regulations with the moniker India 2000 were introduced in 2000, with the second and third iteration introduced in 2001 and 2005 with the moniker BSII (BS2) and BSIII (BS3), respectively.

The fourth iteration BSIV or BS4 was introduced in 2017 and the delay between the introduction of BS3 and BS4 resulted in fast-tracking the BSVI or BS6 emission instead of BSV or BS5 norms. Each of these emission norms has stricter emission standards compared to its predecessors.

The table below offers an insight into the implementation timelines of the emission norms:

How Do BS6 (BSVI) Diesel Engines Work?:=The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit converts nitrogen oxide (NOx) into diatomic nitrogen and water (both are harmless products) with the help of a catalyst. The SCR unit uses AdBlue or diesel exhaust fluid to reduce NOx emissions. This fluid is made up of two parts – urea and deionized water. When exhaust gases come in contact with the AdBlue fluid, urea is converted to ammonia and carbon dioxide and in turn, the ammonia converts NOx into nitrogen and water vapour, thereby reducing pollutants.

News:- Saturn’s moon Enceladus and Jupiter’s moon Europa are still
interesting as candidates that may support life, because scientists have spotted water plumes bursting from their icy shells.

EXPLAINED : Google Chrome in spying spot

 Google Chrome extensions downloaded more than 32 million times were used to spy on the popular browser’s users in a massive global surveillance campaign, according to a new report.

The report, from cybersecurity firm Awake Security, found at least 111 “malicious or fake” Chrome extensions capable of taking screenshots, stealing login credentials and capturing passwords as users typed them. The campaign impacted a wide range of sectors including financial services, healthcare and government organizations, it added.

Extensions allow users to add features and capabilities to their browsers, such as a recently popular one that allows multiple laptops to stream Netflix shows simultaneously and another from Google that lets users flag suspicious websites.

Awake linked all the extensions associated with the spying campaign back to Galcomm, an Israeli web hosting company that claims to manage around 250,000 browser domains.

Explainer 2 :How are the Rajya Sabha polls different

Methodology : Proportional Representation by Single Transferrable Vote.

In 2 years , 1/3rd Members retire

New members are selected for 6 years term but that is not mentioned in the constitution.

Only elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies can vote in a Rajya Sabha election. The legislators send a batch of new members to the Upper House every two years for a six-year term. A third of Members of
Parliament in the Rajya Sabha (which is a permanent House and is not subject to dissolution), from each State retire once in two years and polls are held to fill up to the vacancies. In addition, vacancies that arise due to
resignation, death or disqualific-ation are filled up through
bypolls after which those elected serve out the remainder
of their predecessors’ term.

Voting is by single transferable vote, as the election is held on the principle of proportional representation. In other words, a bloc of MPs belonging to one or more parties can elect a member of their choice if they have the requisite numbers. This is to avoid the principle of majority, which would mean that only candidates put up by ruling parties in the respective States will be elected. The Delhi and Puducherry Assemblies elect members
to the Rajya Sabha to represent the two Union Territories.

SOME OTHER FEATURES :

NO NOTA

NO ANTI-DEFEC-TION ON C-ROSS VOTING.

OPEN BALLOT SYSTEM

Candidates fielded by political parties have to be proposed by at least 10 members of the Assembly or 10% of the party’s strength in the House, whichever is less. For independents, there should be 10 proposers, all of whom should be members of the Assembly.

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