The Hindu Newspaper 25th April 2020

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1)Which of the following is/are the characteristics that the pollutant should possess in order for bio magnification to occur?

  1. A pollutant should be long lived.
  2. A pollutant should be biologically active.
  3. A pollutant should be soluble in fats.

Select the correct answer code:

2)Why Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a better mode used to measure pollution load in water than Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)?

  1. COD can measure pollution load in flowing water, which BOD cannot.
  2. COD measures pollution load due to non-biodegradable sources, which BOD does not.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

3) What is Paraquat ?

Map of the Day :-  Famous Plateaus of World

News :- Ranil calls for regional cooperation

The SAARC Secretariat should play an active rolein the region’s response to COVID-19, along with “someone in charge”, according to Sri Lanka’s former Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe.

SAARC comprises the following member states:








Sri Lanka

SAARC was founded by seven states in 1985. In 2005, Afghanistan requested its accession to SAARC and formally applied for membership on the same year.

This organization was formed in Dhaka on December 8, 1985, and its secretariat is based in Kathmandu, Nepal.

SAARC Observer States



European union




United States


Structure of SAARC

SAARC has the following structure:

Council – It is the apex policy-making body. The council is represented by government heads of the respective member countries.

Council of Ministers – The Council of Ministers comprises the foreign ministers and they meet generally two times annually.

NEWS:- CAIT to launche-commerce marketplace

The Confederation of All India Traders (CAIT) said it would soon lunch a national e-commerce marketplace to help local kirana stores take orders online in association with the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trader (DPIIT) and other bodies. In the present situation, people who are especiallyin tier two and tier three cities, are particularly dependent on local stores for supply of goods but are facing many challenges, the CAIT said.

News :- About NCLT :-

The National Company Law Tribunal or NCLT is a quasi-judicial body in India adjudicating issues concerning companies in the country. It was formed on June 1, 2016, as per the provisions of the Companies Act 2013 (Section 408) by the Indian government.

It was formed based on the recommendations of the Justice Eradi Committee that was related to insolvency and winding up of companies in India.

NCLT Functions:-

  • All proceedings under the Companies Act such as arbitration, arrangements, compromise, reconstruction and winding up of the company will be disposed off by the Tribunal.
  • The NCLT is also the Adjudicating Authority for insolvency proceedings under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016
  • The NCLT has the authority to dispose of cases pending before the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR), as well as, those pending under the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985.
  • Also to take up those cases pending before the Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction.
  • It can also take up cases relating to the oppression and mismanagement of a company.

Decisions taken by the NCLT can be appealed to the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT).

The decisions of the NCLAT can be appealed to the Supreme Court on a point of law.

Aspirants should know that the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) is a tribunal which was formed by the government under Section 410 of the Companies Act, 2013.

NCLAT is responsible for hearing appeals from the orders of National Company Law Tribunal.

News:-  Reason of White Tiger :

The white Bengal tigers are distinctive due to the color of their fur.

The white fur caused by a lack of the pigment pheomelanin, which is found in Bengal tigers with orange color fur. When compared to Bengal tigers, the white Bengal tigers tend to grow faster and heavier than the orange Bengal tiger.

Editorial of the Day :-

No 100% quota

Background :- Recently a five judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court held it unconstitutional to provide 100% reservation for tribal teachers in schools located in scheduled areas across country.

As per author The decision is correct as it was obnoxious idea even if it was for the welfare of a particular community.

Why 100 % quota was there :- Of course,what the State government did, in its original orders of 1986, and thereafter, in a subsequent order in 2000, was not without its own rationale.

It found that there was chronic absenteeism among teachers who did not belong to those remote areas where the schools were located.

However, its solution of drafting only members of the local tribes was not a viable solution. As the Bench noted, it could have come up with other incentives to ensure the attendance of teachers.

Affirmative action loses its meaning if it does not leave the door slightly ajar for open competition.

Dr.B.R. Ambedkar observed during the debate in the Constituent Assembly on the equality clause, that any reservation normally ought to be for a “minority of seats”.

This is one of the points often urged in favour of the 50% cap imposed by the Court on total reservation, albeit with some allowance for relaxation in special circumstances.

Editorial 2 :- Joining of giants 

Central Theme :- The coming together of Facebook and Jio is exciting, but there is a risk of a monopoly.

Facebook’s decision to invest ₹43,574 crore for a 9.9% stake in Reliance Industries Ltd.’s Jio Platforms marks a rare coming together of two giantswho have a reputation for market domination.

The Real reason if the Deal is to secure the retail sector . Which many big giants like amazon, alibaba want to tap.

But thecombination of Facebook and Reliance will be difficult to beat —they seem to have both the marketplace and the payment solution sides covered.

For Facebook’s WhatsApp messaging service, India is the biggest market with over 400 million users.

It currently awaits regulatory approval for its payment solutions.

Jio is now India’s No. 1 telecom brand by user base, less than four years after it launched its service. And then, JioMart is a recently launched commerce marketplace, whichseeks to connect local retailers with consumers.

This their coming together can be a deadly one to competition.

Facebook now gets to participate in a stronger way in one of the world’s fastest growing markets for e-commerce. Reliance can rely on the popular messaging service to accelerate the building of its marketplace.

But will the deal that brings together the world’s largest social media company and the group that is a leader in everything from oil to data lead to more consolidationand fewer players, as it happened in the telecom sector?

It is a big question mark, and the deal should not be passed without closely scrutinising this. For, the futureof India’s Internet economy is at stake.

News:- No plan to ease fiscal deficit targets

Escape clause :- Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act’s escape clause is to relax the fiscal deficit target  by 0.5% percentage points to 3.5% of the GDP in case of severe calamity or Disaster or some emergency situation.

States want the Govt. To relax FD targets to 4% or 5%.

N.K singh said  that change would not be possible without fresh legislation being enacted by the States.

A more expeditious method would be for the States to first trigger their own escape clauses.

News:- Foodgrain stock will last till next March, says FCI

As per the Chief buffer stock norms were fixedbased on the requirement of wheat or rice at 5 kg a person for 80 crore beneficiaries of the National Food Security Act (NFSA), which was in line with the requirements of the law.

However, a pandemic, as weare witnessing today, is a different situation and it may demand a revision of the existing norms in view of the additional allocation of foodgrains at 5 kg a person, as being done under the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana (PMGKAY) for three months (April to June thisyear in the light of the COVID19).

In essence, the buffer norms now need to take into account the additional allocation too,”

News:Wildlife Board nod for mining in Assam elephant reserve

National Board for Wildlife (NBWL)

About National Board for Wildlife:

  1. It is a “Statutory Organization” constituted under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
  2. Its roles is “advisory” in nature and advises the Central Government on framing policies and measures for conservation of wildlife in the country.
  3. Primary function of the Board is to promote the conservation and development of wildlife and forests.
  4. It has power to review all wildlife-related matters and approve projects in and around national parks and sanctuaries.
  5. No alternation of boundaries in national parks and wildlife sanctuaries can be done without approval of the NBWL.
  6. Composition: The NBWL is chaired by the Prime Minister. It has 47 members including the Prime Minister. Among these, 19 members are ex-officio members. Other members include three Members of Parliament (two from Lok Sabha and one from Rajya Sabha), five NGOs and 10 eminent ecologists, conservationists and environmentalists.

Permission is given for Saleki proposed reserve forest land for a coal mining project by North Eastern Coal Field (NECF, aunit of Coal India Limited.

Saleki is a part of the Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve that includes the Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary covering 111.19 sq km of rainforest and several reserve forests in Sivasagar, Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts.

News:-IIT-D’s coronavirus detection assay gets ICMR approval

IIT-D the first academic institute to have obtained ICMR approval for a realtime polymerase chain reaction(PCR) based diagnostic assay fir Covid-19.




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