1)Galapagos Islands sometimes seen in the news recently are a part of which of the following countries?
- a. U.S.A
- b. Colombia
- c. Ecuador
- d. None of the above
2)Thoruru style of wood crafting is practised in which of the following states?
- a. Kerala
- b. Maharashtra
- c. Bihar
- d. Andhra Pradesh
3)Consider the following statements with respect to Strait of Hormuz
- It is a strait located between Yemen and Djibouti.
- It connects Gulf of Oman with Persian Gulf.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
- a. 1 only
- b. 2 only
- c. Both 1 and 2
- d. Neither 1 nor 2
4)International Intellectual Property Index was published by which of the following?
- a. UN Development Programme
- b. World Intellectual Property Organisation
- c. US Chamber of Commerce
- d. None of the above
5)Deepor Beel Wildlife Sanctuary is located in which of the following states?
- a. Meghalaya
- b. Assam
- c. Tripura
- d. Arunachal Pradesh
- The IPTA is a collaboration of radio astronomers from a dozen countries across the globe.
- It uses more than 12 radio telescopes all over the world with an aim to detect ultra-low frequency gravitational waves.
- India has been an associate member of the IPTA since the last four years.
- National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA) is all set to host the five-day annual International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) meet from June 17 to 21.
On World Dugong Day, experts have said that dugong could one day become extinct in Indian waters unless conserved.
- Dugongs commonly called sea cow is an herbivorous marine mammal found throughout the warm latitudes of the Indian and western Pacific Oceans.
- They are largely dependent on seagrass communities for subsistence and are thus restricted to the coastal habitats which support seagrass meadows.
- According to a 2013 Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) report, there were only about 200 dugongs in the Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat.
- Significance: Dugongs are an important part of the marine ecosystem and their depletion will have effects all the way up the food chain.
- IUCN Status: Vulnerable
- Wild Life Protection Act,1972: Schedule I
- Threats: Human activities such as the destruction and modification of habitat, pollution, rampant illegal fishing activities, vessel strikes, unsustainable hunting or poaching and unplanned tourism.
- Delimitation: It refers to the act or process of fixing limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies in a country or a province having a legislative body.
- Process of Delimitation: Under Article 82, the Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act after every Census.Once the Act is in force,the Union government sets up a Delimitation Commission.
- In India, Delimitation Commissions have been constituted 4 times – in 1952 under the Delimitation Commission Act,1952, in 1963 under Delimitation Commission Act,1962, in 1973 under Delimitation Act,1972 and in 2002 under Delimitation Act, 2002.
- Delimitation Commission: It is appointed by the President of India and works in collaboration with the Election Commission of India.
- Composition: Retired Supreme Court judge, Chief Election Commissioner and Respective State Election Commissioners.
- Associate members: Members of Parliament and Legislative Assemblies of states for which the Delimitation Commission is set up, are nominated as associate members to help the commission in its task.
- Powers: The Delimitation Commission is a high power body whose orders have the force of law and cannot be called in question before any court.
News:- Hindi as official language in Haryana courts challenged
Haryana Official Language (Amendment) Act of 2020 has unconstitutionally
and arbitrarily imposed Hindi as the sole official language to be used in lower courts across the State.
The lawyers have argued that English is widely used by advocates in lower
courts in justice administration work.
The imposition of Hindi as the sole language would result in an unreasonable classification between lawyers who are fluent in hindi and those who are not.
Note:- Paracetamol API exports to resume:-
EDITORIAL : Complete India- Nepal Relation Evolution :-
Issue of Kalapani:
- India inherited the boundary:
- Treaty of Sugauli in 1816: Boundary was established between Nepal and the East India Company. Kali river constituted the boundary and the territory to its east was Nepal.
- Dispute: It relates to the origin of Kali. There is a confluence of different streams coming from north-east from Kalapani and north-west from Limpiyadhura in Dharchula Tehsil of the Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand.
- Change:The early British survey maps identified the north-west stream, Kuti Yangti, from Limpiyadhura as the origin. After 1857, it changed the alignment to Lipu Gad and in 1879 to Pankha Gad. It defines the origin as just below Kalapani. Nepal accepted the change and India inherited this boundary in 1947.
|The Maoist Revolution in China in 1949||It was followed by the takeover of Tibet which created deep doubts in Nepal and India was ‘invited’ to set up 18 border posts along the Nepal-Tibet border.|
|1953||India and China identified Lipulekh Pass for both pilgrims and border trade|
|1961||China-Nepal Boundary Treaty that defines the zero point in the west, just north of Tinkar Pass.|
|By 1969||India withdrawn its border posts from Nepali territory. The base camp for Lipulekh remained at Kalapani. In their respective maps, both countries showed Kalapani as the origin of Kali river and as part of their territory.|
|After 1979||ITBP has manned the Lipulekh Pass.|
- The 1996 Treaty of Mahakali:
- It envisaged Pancheshwar multipurpose hydel project and the issue of the origin of Kali river was first raised in 1997.
- The matter was referred to the Joint Technical Level Boundary Committee that had been set up in 1981 to re-identify and replace the old and damaged boundary pillars along the India-Nepal border.
- The Committee clarified 98% of the boundary, leaving behind the unresolved issues of Kalapani and Susta when it was dissolved in 2008.
- It was subsequently agreed that the matter would be discussed at the Foreign Secretary level.
- Change in the status of Jammu and Kashmir as two Union Territories: The Survey of India issued a new political map (eighth edition) on November 2, 2019. Nepal registered a protest though the map in no way had changed the boundary between India and Nepal.
- Ninth edition was issued:The delineation remained identical but the name Kali river had been deleted. It led to stronger protests with Nepal invoking Foreign Secretary-level talks to resolve issues.
The complexity underlying India-Nepal issues:
- Weakening of Mr. Oli’s domestic political situation:
- Under the Nepali Constitution, a new PM enjoys a guaranteed two-year period during which a no-confidence motion is not permitted which ended in february resulting in resentment against Mr. Oli’s governance.
- Inept handling of the COVID-19 pandemic: It added to the growing disenchantment.
- Party politics: Within the Nepal Communist Party (NCP), there was a move to impose a ‘one man, one post’ rule that would force Mr. Oli choose between being NCP co-chair or PM.
- Political Lifeline: Indian Defence Minister virtually inaugurated the 80-km road and provided Mr. Oli with a political lifeline.
- Nationalism card: He donned the nationalist mantle vowing to restore Nepali territory and marked a new low in anti-Indian rhetoric by talking about “the Indian virus being more lethal than the Chinese or the Italian virus”.
- New Map of Nepal: It is based on the older British survey reflecting Kali river originating from Limpiyadhura in the north-west of Garbyang was adopted by parliament and notified. The new alignment adds 335 sq km to Nepali territory that has never been reflected in a Nepali map for nearly 170 years.
India’s approach should focus on:
- “Neighbourhood first” policy:
- The relationship took a backseat in 2015 when India first got blamed for interfering in the Constitution-drafting in Nepal and then for an “unofficial blockade” that generated widespread resentment against the country.
- India need to build the trust deficit and show that Nepali nationalism and anti-Indianism are not the two sides of the same coin.
- China card providing Nepal the leverage to practice their version of non-alignment:
- With the abolition of the monarchy, China has shifted attention from keeping tabs on the Tibetan refugee community to the political parties and to institutions like the Army and Armed Police Force.
- India need to counter China’s more assertive foreign policy.
- Ignoring the changing political narrative in Nepal for far too long:
- India remained content that its interests were safeguarded by quiet diplomacy even when Nepali leaders publicly adopted anti-Indian postures.
- For too long, India has invoked a “special relationship”, based on shared culture, language and religion, to anchor its ties with Nepal.
The urgent need today is to lay the groundwork for a quiet dialogue where both sides need to display sensitivity as they explore the terms of a reset of the “special relationship”.
OPINION:- India- Africa robust ties are built on following pillars:
- pportunities created by COVID -19 for enhancing partnership
- Fund Creation– A new fund for Africa can be created by India and adapt its grant-in-aid assistance to reflect the current priorities.
- Engaging with other nations– Under Quad-Plus, the four diamond democracies of US, India, Japan and Australia can engage with African nations who have shared interest in Indian ocean security and development.
- Tele-education – The movement of African students to India for higher education has been disrupted by COVID, India may expand the e-VidyaBharti (tele education) project to establish an India-Africa Virtual University.
- Containing and mapping Covid – The Aarogya Setu App and the E-Gram Swaraj App for rural areas for mapping COVID-19 are technological achievements that could be shared with Africa.
- Collaboration In anti-locust operation – This includes sharing best practices and India providing data to affected nation using advanced technology like remote sensing.
Facts: India and China have decided to solve the Border Issue Bilaterally, using the 5 Agreements between 1993 and 2013 :-
- The pacts are the 1993 Agreement on Maintenance of Peace and Tranquility along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas;
- the 1996 Agreement on Confidence Building Measures in the Military Field along the LAC;
- the 2005 Protocol on Modalities for the Implementation of the Confidence Building Measures in the Military Field along the LAC;
- the 2012 Agreement on the Establishment of a Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on India-China Border Affairs;
- and 2013 Border Defence Cooperation Agreement.