The Hindu Newspaper 29th November 2019

Questions for the Day :-

Who was Sultan of Delhi Sultanate when Timur invaded India in 1398?

[A] Mahmud Shah Tughluq

[B] Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji

[C] Aram Shah

[D] Ghiyas-ud-din balban

2)Tropic of Cancer passes through which of the following group of Indian States: [A] Gujarat, MP, Chattisgarh, Manipur

[B] Rajasthan, Jharkhand, West Bengal Mizoram

[C] UP, MP, Bihar, Jharkhand

[D] Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh

3)Which of the following words was added into the Pre-amble of the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976?

[A] Federal

[B] Socialist

[C] Sovereign

D] Republic

News :-

1) Google warned 500 Indians on phishing.  (Gs-3 , Technology , cyber attack)

Phishing :- Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details by disguising oneself as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

Typically carried out by email spoofing or instant messaging, it often directs users to enter personal information at a fake website which matches the look and feel of the legitimate site.

2) Lok Sabha passes Bill to regularise Delhi colonies:- The Lok Sabha passed the National CapitalTerritory of Delhi (Recognition of Property Rights ofResidents in UnauthorisedColonies) Bill, 2019, whichwill grant ownership rightsto residents living in 1,731unauthorised colonies. TheBill was passed by voicevote.

3) FASTags :- The FASTag is a reloadable tag that allows automatic deduction of toll without having to stop for carrying out the cash transaction. The tag uses radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and is fixed on the windscreen of the vehicle once active.

Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) is the use of radio waves to read and capture information stored on a tag attached to an object. A tag can be read from up to several feet away and does not need to be within direct line-of-sight of the reader to be tracked.

The tag is valid for five years and comes in seven different colours — violet, orange, yellow, green, pink, blue, black. Each colour is assigned to a particular category of vehicles.

It was rolled out in April 2016, and the Government made it mandatory from December 1, 2017 for all new cars and trucks to be fitted with a FASTag before they were sold.

4) PIL:- A Public Interest Litigation (PIL) is introduced in a court of law not by the aggrieved party but by a private party or by the court itself.

PILs have become a potent tool for enforcing the legal obligation of the executive and the legislature.
The chief objective behind PILs are ensuring justice to all and promoting the welfare of the people.

The concept of PILs have diluted the principle of locus standi, which implies that only the person/party whose rights have been infringed upon can file petitions.

Any Indian citizen or organisation can move the court for a public interest/cause by filing a petition:
In the SC under Article 32

In the High Courts under Article 226

In the Courts of Magistrate under Section 133 of the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC).

In 1979, kapila Hingorani filed a petition and secured the release of almost 40000 undertrials from Patna’s jails in the famous ‘Hussainara Khatooncase. Hingorani was a lawyer. This case was filed in the SC before a Bench led by Justice P N Bhagwati. Justice Bhagwati and Justice V R Krishna Iyer were among the first judges in the country to admit PILs.

5) Blaise Harrison’ movie “Particles” won the Golden Peacock at 50th IFFI :- IFFI is international film festival of India , celebrated at Panaji Goa. This is the 50th Edition of that.

6) Nod for defence purchase worth ₹22,800 cr:- Who gives the Nod ? :- DAC or the Defence Acquisition Council.

Who heads the DAC ?:- The Defence Minister heads the DAC.

Which are the new Defence equipments ready to be be inculcated with Indian defence forces??:- see in the Photograph below:-

Editorials :-

Editorial 1 :- 29th November 2019
ISSUE: EMISSIONS GAP REPORT

Report is Published by: UN Environment Programme

WHAT IS THE MEANING OF THE EMISSIONS GAP?

Emissions gap represents the difference between current actions to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) and what is needed to meet the target.

MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE REPORT:-
UN’s Emissions Gap Report comes as a sharp warning to countries preparing to meet in Madrid in December, under the aegis of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, that every year of inaction is jeopardising the main goal of the Paris Agreement: to keep the rise in global temperature over pre-industrial times well below 2°C, and ideally at 1.5°C.
the UN report estimates that there would have to be a 2.7% average annual cut in emissions from 2020 to 2030 for temperature rise to be contained at 2°C, while the more ambitious 1.5° C target would require a 7.6% reduction.

WHAT MAJOR EMITTERS ARE DOING? In the U.S., the Trump administration has initiated the process of withdrawing from the Paris Agreement, but there is considerable sub-national support for climate action.

The EU where public pressure to act on climate change is high, is working on legislation to bring about net zero emissions.

The U.K., responsible for a large share of historical emissions, has turned its net zero 2050 goal into a legal requirement.

WHAT  CAN INDIA DO?

• scale up investments in renewable energy,
• leapfrogging to clean technologies in buildings and transport, and
• greater carbon sequestration.
• long-term plan to retire coal power plants,
• enhance ambition on air quality,
• adopt an economy-wide green industrialisation strategy, and
• expand mass transport.

Editorial 2 :- ISSUE: CHALLENGES FOR INDIA’S NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY:-

Author highlights that the countries in the subcontinent that India engages with now have elected leaders with big political mandates, New Delhi has a new set of challenges to its policy.

Author had highlighted mainly following challenges:-

BITTER HISTORY WITH MANY OF THE RULING LEADERS: For example in Sri Lanka the current President and Prime Minister in the past have accused Indian intelligence agencies for their electoral loss in 2015.

Despite the early outreach to Mr. Oli in Nepal, relations between the two governments never fully recovered from their rough patch during the Nepal trade blockade of 2015, and therefore, the history of ties remains an important factor.

LACK OF FUNDING FROM INDIA: Not just in Sri Lanka, but also across the subcontinent, India has lagged behind in investment figures, as data collated from the Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Bangladesh Bank and Nepal Rastra Bank showed in a recent study by the Observer Research Foundation (“Looking back, looking ahead: Foreign policy in transition under Modi”).
According to the report, while India’s Foreign Direct Investment in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal was more than that by China in 2014-2015, the order was reversed by 2017-2018.
This is also true of the Maldives, where despite the ouster of the pro-China regime a year ago, and a four-fold increase in New Delhi’s aid to Male since then

INCREASING CHINESE INFLUENCE IN THE REGION:-In Sri Lanka, while Mr. Gotabaya has suggested that the lease that gave Beijing control of Hambantota port will be renegotiated, there is little indication that any other loan or project will be reversed.

Nepal has, in fact, stepped up its engagement with China after President Xi Jinping’s recent visit, with a number of road, rail, infrastructure projects and dry port access in the works.
Bangladesh, arguably India’s closest partner in the region, saw $3.6 billion in FDI from China last year, along with ‘Belt and Road promises’ of $50 billion.
As these figures climb, it will be harder for New Delhi to tough-talk leaders in the neighbourhood, as it once did, on investments from China, especially as the government itself seeks to attract the same into India.

INDIA’S INTERNAL ISSUES: –
Author highlights that the manner in which minorities are being treated in India and the way in which dilution of Article 370 was done , the Citizenship Amendment Bill is being considered, the National Register for Citizenship and detention centres for illegal residents are being built , and cases of mob lynching are handled Indian advice on equality, justice, peace and dignity will not be taken seriously.

It will be hard for New Delhi to lecture Nepal on constitutional rights for Madhesis; Pakistan and Bangladesh on treatment of their Hindu and Sikh minorities; and Myanmar on Rohingya, when the government is not seen upholding those ideals itself.

Editorial 3:ISSUE: HOW INDIA’S RANKING IN GLOBAL HUNGER INDEX CAN BE IMPROVED

WHAT IS CUURENT RANKING?
India is ranked 102 in the Global Hunger Index (GHI) out of 117 qualified countries.

Nearly 47 million or four out of 10 children in India do not meet their potential because of chronic undernutrition or stunting.

WHO PUBLISHES THIS INDEX?
The report, prepared jointly by Irish aid agency Concern Worldwide and German organisation Welt Hunger Hilfe termed the level of hunger in India “serious”.

MAJOR INDICATORS OF GHI:
The Global Hunger Index score is calculated on four indicators —
UNDERNOURISHMENT;
CHILD WASTING, that is the share of children under the age of five who have low weight for their height, reflecting acute undernutrition;
CHILD STUNTING, that is children under the age of five who have low height for their age, reflecting chronic undernutrition; and
CHILD MORTALITY, the mortality rate of children under five years.

HOW HUNGER IS DEFINED? :-
Hunger is defined by caloric deprivation; protein hunger; hidden hunger by deficiency of micronutrients.

HOW HUNGER IMPACTS THE LIVE OF CHILDREN?
Hunger leads to diminished learning capacity, increased chronic diseases, low birth-weight infants from malnourished parents.

SOLUTIONS BEING OFFERED:-

NUTRITION GARDEN: the Ministry of Human Resources Development brought out school ‘nutrition garden’ guidelines encouraging eco-club students to identify fruits and vegetables best suited to topography, soil and climate. These gardens can give students lifelong social, numerical and presentation skills, care for living organisms and team work, besides being used in the noon-meal scheme.

INCREASE AGRO BIODIVERSITY: –
Agrobiodiversity — relating to diversity of crops and varieties — is crucial in food security, nutrition, health and essential in agricultural landscapes.
The consumption pattern and culinary diversity must be enlarged to increase India’s food basket and counter hunger and undernutrition.

OTHER IMPORTANT FACT HIGHLIGHTED IN THE ARTICLE:

Across the world, 37 sites are designated as Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), of which three are Indian — Kashmir (saffron), Koraput (traditional agriculture) and Kuttanad (below sea-level farming).

The UN Sustainable Development Goal 2 advocates for Zero Hunger and the Aichi Biodiversity Target focuses on countries conserving genetic diversity of plants, farm livestock and wild relatives.

7) U.S. to cut spending on NATO budget, Germany to pay more:- The U.S. is to cut its contribution to NATO’s operatingbudget, officials said onThursday, with Germany increasing payments as the alliance tries to appease President Donald Trump aheadof a summit next week.

NATO :- About North Atlantic Treaty Organization (North Atlantic Alliance):
• It is an intergovernmental military alliance.
• Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949.
• Headquarters — Brussels, Belgium.

Objectives:
• Political – NATO promotes democratic values and enables members to consult and cooperate on defence and security-related issues to solve problems, build trust and, in the long run, prevent conflict.
• Military – NATO is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes. If diplomatic efforts fail, it has the military power to undertake crisis-management operations. These are carried out under the collective defence clause of NATO’s founding treaty – Article 5 of the Washington Treaty or under a United Nations mandate, alone or in cooperation with other countries and international organisations.

 

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