1)Which of the following currents are cold currents
- Humboldt Current
- California Current
- North Atlantic Drift
- Benguela Current
Select the correct codes:
2)Match the following regions with the soil quality in them correctly.
- Tropical Equatorial forest – Poor nutrient acidic soil
- Tropical deciduous forest – Rich in nutrients
- Boreal forest – Acidic and poor in nutrients
Choose the correct answer code:
3)Which of the following princely states was/were annexed using the policy of the Doctrine of Lapse?
Select the correct answer code:
States were annexed by Dalhousie by applying ‘Doctrine of Lapse’
1. The States of Satara (1848 AD)
2. Jaipur (1849 AD)
3. Sambhalpur (1849 AD)
4. Bahat (1850 A.D)
5. Udaipur (1852 AD)
6. Jhansi (1853 AD)
7. Nagpur (1854 AD)
Map of the Day :-
News :- Three CRPF jawans martyred in militant attack
Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
- The Central Reserve Police Force came into existence as Crown Representative’s Police on 27th July 1939. It became the Central Reserve Police Force on enactment of the CRPF Act on 28th December 1949.
- It is a CAPF thus under MHA.
- The mission of the Central Reserve Police Force is to enable the government to maintain Rule of Law, Public Order and Internal Security effectively and efficiently, to Preserve National Integrity and Promote Social Harmony and Development by upholding the supremacy of the Constitution.
- Broad duties being performed by the CRPF are:
- Crowd control
- Riot control
- Counter Militancy / Insurgency operations.
- Dealing with Left Wing Extremism
- Overall coordination of large scale security arrangement especially with regard to elections in disturbed areas.
- Fighting enemy in the event of War.
- Participating in UN peacekeeping Mission as per Govt. policy.
- Rescue and Relief operations at the time of Natural Calamities and disasters.
2)News:- States with high swine flu rate record most COVID-19 cases
About Swine Flu:-
- The term “swine flu” refers to influenza in pigs. Occasionally, pigs transmit influenza viruses to people, mainly to hog farmers and veterinarians. Less often, someone infected with swine flu passes the infection to others.
- In the spring of 2009, scientists recognized a particular strain of flu virus known as H1N1. This virus is actually a combination of viruses from pigs, birds and humans. During the 2009-10 flu season, H1N1 caused the respiratory infection in humans that was commonly referred to as swine flu. Because so many people around the world got sick that year, the World Health Organization declared the flu caused by H1N1 to be a global pandemic.
- The H1N1 virus is now known as The v stands for variant and indicates that the virus normally circulates in animals but has been detected in humans.
3)Jharkhand launches schemes for job creation:- Faced with the possibility of a steep rise in the rate of unemployment in villages following the arrival of large scale stranded migrant workers from other States, the Jharkhand government launched three labour intensive programmes:-
- Birsa Harit GramYojana (BHGY),
- Neelambar Pitambar JAL Sammridhi Yojana (NPJSY) and
- Veer Sahid Poto Ho Khel Vikas Scheme(VSPHKVS)
The BHGY is envisaged at bringing over two lakh acres of unused government fallow land under the afforestation programme.
About five lakh families will be provided 100 fruit bearing plants.
The initial plantation, maintenance, land work and afforestationwill be taken up through MNREGA.
As per NPJSY, the government is aiming at creating agro water storage units by arresting rainwater and run away groundwater.
Under VSPHKVS, as many as 5,000 sports grounds will be developed across the State.
Editorial of the Day :-
1)MPLADS, its suspension, and why it must go
What Happened Recently :- Recently the Govt. Suspended the MPLADS Scheme for 2 years so as to utilize the funds of the scheme in strengthening Govt.’s COVID-19 response.
As per author, this is a good step & MPLADs scheme should be completely abolished, and for the following reasons:-
First, the scheme violates: separation of powers.
Simply put, this scheme, in effect, gives an executive function to legislators (read legislature).
The argument that MPs only recommend projects, but the final choice and implementation rests with the district authorities is strange since there are hardly any authorities in the district who have the courage to defy the wishes of an MP.
Second, Observations madeby the Comptroller and AuditorGeneral (CAG) of India, in a report make it clear: Expenditure incurred by the executing agencies being less than amount booked. Utilisation of funds between 49 to 90% of the booked amount;
Though the scheme envisages that works under the scheme should be limited to asset creation, 549 of the 707 works test checked (78%) of the works recommended were for improvement of existing assets;
Thus the Scheme was mis managed , even non maintenance of Records
Third, there are wide variations in the utilisation of the MPLAD amount in various constituencies. A report published in IndiaSpend has highlighted that “A year after they took office, 298 of 542 members of the 16th Lok Sabha — India’s lower house of parliament—have not spent a rupee from the ₹5 crore that is set aside annually for them to develop their constituencies”; 508 MPs (93.55%) did not, or could not, utilise the entire MPLADS amount.
Fourth, An often heard tale is that of the contractor being a relative, close friend, or a confidant ofthe MP, and the contractor and the MP being financially linked with each other.
Therefore, it would be in order to convert the two year suspension into the complete abolition ofthis undesirable and unconstitutional scheme.
Editorial : 2 – A grain stockist with a role still relevant
Central Theme of the Author :- In the middle of the pandemic, the FCI holds the key to warding off a looming crisis of hunger and starvation.
History :- Set up under the Food Corporations Act 1964, in its first decade, the FCI was at the fore front of India’s quest of self sufficiency in rice and wheat following the Green Revolution, managing procurement and stocking grain that supported a vast Public Distribution System(PDS).
Storage Problem:- Before Lockdown there was bumper harvest of wheat —& the FCI was facing a serious storage problem. This was worrying not just because of a shortage of modern storage facilities but also because the FCI lacked a “proactive liquidation policy” for excess stocks.
In lockdown this problem has been solved.
FCI had already moved 3 million tonnes (postlockdown), to States.
The FCI has also enabled purchases by States and non governmental organisations directly from FCI depots, doing away with e-auctions typically conducted for the Open Market Sale Scheme (OMSS).
About OMSS:- Open Market Sale Scheme (OMSS) refers to selling of foodgrains by Government / Government agencies at pre-determined prices in the open market from time to time to enhance the supply of grains especially during the lean season and thereby to moderate the general open market prices especially in the deficit regions.
Yet, there is a widespread sense that the FCI is simply not moving fast enough and could do much more.
What can be done to overcome Food security issues during pandemic:-
First, the FCI is overwhelmingly reliant on rail, which has several advantages over road transport.
In2019-2020 (until February) only 24% of the grain moved was byroad. The FCI has, however, long recognised that road movement is often better suited for emergencies and for remote areas. Containerised movement too, which isnot the dominant way of transporting grain, is more costeffective and efficient.
Now, more than ever, it is imperative to move grain quickly and with the least cost andeffort, to areas where the need is greatest.
Second, given that the coming months will see predictable demand of staples from food insecure hotspots where migrant workers have just returned or where work is scarce, one strategy that has been adopted widely in international food aid by the United States, for example, is “pre-positioning” shipments, where grain isstored closer to demand hotspots.
Third, there is a strong case for the central government to look beyond the PDS and the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana and release stocks over and above existing allocations, but at its own expenses rather than by transferring the fiscal burden to States.
Fourth, typically, the FCI’s guidelines follow a first in, first out principle (FIFO) that mandatesthat grain that has been procured earlier needs to be distributed first to ensure that older stocks are liquidated, both across years and even within a particular year. It istime for the FCI to suspend this strategy, if it has not already, that enables movement that costs least time, money and effort.
Fifth, wherever supply chain in broken FCI should consider expanding its role to support FPOs and farmer groups, into move a wider range of commodities including agricultural inputs such as seeds and fertilizers, packing materials and so on.
Two Major Issues:-
- FCI’s mounting Debt
- A second concern is that extended food distribution of subsidised grain is akin to dumping and depresses food prices locally, in turn affecting farmers.
Shanta Kumar committee report recommended repurposing the organisation as an “agency for innovations in Food Management System” and advocated shedding its dominant role in the procurement and distribution of grain.
Editorial 3:- Off course
Centre’s Notification to bring Cauvery Water Management Authority under the administrative control of the Union Ministry of Jal Shakti, which was created a year ago by combining two Ministries;
- Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation and
- Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.
Why Opposition to notification:-
- Several political parties and some farmers’ associations opposed the notification on the ground that the move has reduced the Authority to a “puppet” of the Centre.
- They point out that the CWMA was created on the direction of the Supreme Court in February 2018.
- It is also argued that between June 2018 May 2019, when the Union Ministry of Water Resources was in existence, there wasno public notification on the CWMA being designated as an organisation under the Ministry.
The last opposition argument is weak since Even in the case of its predecessor body of CWMA , the Cauvery River Authority (1998-2013) with the Prime Minister as the Chairman and Chief Ministers of the basin States as Members, theUnion Ministry of Water Resources had administrative control.
Centre is Actually correcting a mistake :- There are eight inter State river water boards under the Jal Shakti Ministry. Along with the CWMA, four other bodies, including the Krishna and the Godavari Water Management Boards — which have been in existence since 2014 following the reorganisation of Andhra Pradesh — were designated to be under the Ministry.
The formalisationof the CWMA’s status corrects an apparent lapse on the Ministry’s part and addresses administrative issues.
Real issue with CWMA:- Even two years after its formation, the Authority does not have a full fledged chairman.
The latest episode should convince political parties that relentless politicisation of each and every matter concerning water resources does not benefit the stakeholders.
News:- India flays nod for Gilgit-Baltistan polls
Recently Pakistan Supreme Court allowed the Imran Khan govt. to hold elections in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of PoK(Pak occupied Kashmir).
India said it had issued a demarche (a course of action, especially a political one) to protest what it called Pakistan’s attempt tomake “material changes” to the disputed area, by bringing federal authority to Gilgit-Baltistan (GB), which has functioned as a “provincial autonomous region”since 2009.
The Government of Pakistan or its judiciary has no locus standi on territories illegally and forcibly occupied by it.
India completely rejects such actions and continued attempts to bring material changes in Pakistan occupied areas of the Indian territory of Jammu &Kashmir.
Instead, Pakistan should immediately vacate all areas under its illegal occupation.
News:- SC to hear PIL on food security for all
The Supreme Court is set to hear on Tuesday a public interest litigation petition seeking universal coverage under the Public Distribution System and food security for all amid an “acute food shortage” due to the ongoing nationwide lockdown.
Past Judgement :- “It may be further appreciated that this Hon’bleCourt has, in the past, suspended the requirement of releasing rations against ration cards in situations of drought, etc. in Swaraj Abhiyan II v. Union of India,(2016) 7 SCC 498,”.
In the 2016 judgement, the SC had ruled that “it would be inappropriate for the State Governments to deprive any household in drought affected areas of the requisite foodgrains merely because they do not have a ration card”.
The apex court had held that the ration card could be substituted by a valid identity card or any proof of residence.
News:- DRDO develops a disinfection tower
The Defence Research and Development Organisation(DRDO) has developed anultraviolet (UV) disinfection tower for rapid and chemical free disinfection of high infection prone areas.
The equipment named UV Blaster is “useful for high tech surfaces like electronic equipment, computers and other gadgets in laboratories and offices that are not suitable for disinfection with chemical methods.
The product is also effective for areas with a large flow of people such as airports, shopping malls, metros, hotels, factories and offices.
It was designed and developed by Laser Science &Technology Centre (LASTEC) based in Delhi with the help of New Age Instruments and Materials PrivateLimited, Gurugram.
News:- China province launches anti-racism push after outrage
China’s southern Guangdong province has launched a raft of anti discrimination policies targeting businesses and venues after a heavy handed crackdown on the African community sparked international outrage last month.
News:- New health warnings on tobacco product packs
The Union Health Ministry notified a new set of images with specified health warnings for all tobacco product packs by making an amendment to the Cigarettes and other Tobacco Products (Packaging and Labelling) Rules, 2008.
Any person engaged directly or indirectly in the manufacture, production, supply, import or distribution of cigarettes or any tobacco products shall ensure that all tobacco product packages shall have the specified health warnings exactly as prescribed.
Violation of the provisionis a punishable offence with imprisonment or fine as prescribed in Section 20 of the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003.