The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 05/06/2020

Consider the following statements with respect to UN Security Council (UNSC)

  1. Each year the UN General Assembly elects five non-permanent members for a two-year term.
  2. China and Pakistan has supported India’s candidature for a non-permanent seat at UNSC for the year 2021-22.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a.  1 only

b.  2 only

c.  Both 1 and 2

d.  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : c

Each year the General Assembly elects five non-permanent members (out of 10 in total) for a two-year term.

The 10 non-permanent seats are distributed on a regional basis as follows:

Five for African and Asian States

One for Eastern European States

Two for the Latin American and Caribbean States

Two for Western European and other States

2)BP Sharma Committee sometimes seen in the news recently is associated with which of the following?

a.  To review the criterion for classifying PSUs as sick and healthy

b.  To review Other Backward Classes Creamy layer criteria

c.  To review the implementation of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code

d.  None of the above

3) Consider the following pairs

Places in News – Country

Osaka – Canada

Sylhet – Myanmar

Pyongyang – South Korea

 Which of the pair(s) given above is/are correctly matched?

a.  2 only

b.  1 and 2 only

c.  1, 2 and 3

d.  None

Answer : d

Osaka – Japan

Sylhet – Bangladesh

Pyongyang – North Korea

World Drug Report is published annually by?

a.  UN Human Rights

b.  World Health Organisation

c.  UN Office on Drugs and Crime

d.  None of the above

Answer : c

News:- India-China dialogue to focus on three areas :- The first ever
talks between Indian and Chinese Lieutenant Generals over the weekend
to ease the tension on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) will focus on eastern
Ladakh with the aim of moving back to the earlier positions.

“The focus of the talks will be on the Galwan area, Pangong Tso and Gogra. The agenda will focus on the recent use of force, getting back to the positions before May 5 and subsequent de-induction of troops by China,”

Pangong Tso is an important focus area as Chinese troops have taken positions in large numbers at the Finger 4 area. India holds onethird
of the 135 km boomerang shaped lake. India has always held areas in Finger 4, while it claims areas so far as Finger 8.

News:- SC asks Centre, States to devise ‘common pass system’ for NCR

The Supreme Court on Thursday ordered the Centre to meet Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana officials to devise a “common, uniform” pass system for inter State movement in the National Capital Region (NCR) during the pandemic.

“The petition says that in the NCR there should be one policy, one pass recognised by all the three States to avoid confusion, difficulty to common man.

News:- Small drop in joblessness in 2018-19: PLFS

India’s unemployment rate improved from the 45 year high of 6.1% in 2017-18 to 5.8% in 2018-19, says the latest Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS), released by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation on Thursday.

The labour force participation rate also improved marginally, from 36.9% in
2017-18 to 37.5% in 2018-19. The labour force is defined as people who are working, or seeking work or available for work.
The report shows the dip came across all categories, though women and rural workers showed the most improvement.

Women’s unemployment fell from 5.7% to 5.2%, while male unemployment
only fell from 6.2% to 6%. Urban unemployment was still at a high
of 7.7% in 2018-19, a marginal drop from 7.8% in 2017-18, while rural unemployment fell from 5.3% to 5%.

Universal Immunization Program:- The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), a national policy of immunizing all children during the first year of life with DPT, OPV, BCG and typhoid–paratyphoid fever vaccines was launched in 1978. Immunization of pregnant mothers with TT vaccine was introduced in 1983. In 1985, the name of EPI was changed to the Universal Immunization Program (UIP) with activities phased in to the entire country by 1990.

The stated objectives of UIP are:
 To rapidly increase immunization coverage
 to improve the quality of services
 To establish a reliable cold chain system to the health facility level
 To introduce a district-wise system for monitoring of performance
 To achieve self-sufficiency in vaccine production

GOAL
Reduce mortality and morbidity due to vaccine preventable diseases through high quality immunization
services
KEY OBJECTIVES
KO1 Improve program service delivery for equitable and efficient immunization services by all districts
KO 2: Increase demand and reduce barriers for people to access immunization services through improved
advocacy at all levels and social mobilization
KO 3: Strengthen and maintain robust surveillance system for vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) and
adverse events following immunization (AEFI)
KO4: Introduce and expand the use of new and underutilized vaccines and technology in UIP
KO 5: Strengthen health system for immunization program
KO 6: Contribute to global polio eradication, measles, maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination.

The services provided through the UIP shall be guided by the following principles

  1. Universal immunization coverage: Sustaining demand and ensuring that all pregnant mothers,
    children and adolescents are immunized as per national schedule in line with the principles of universal
    health coverage
  2. Equitable access: Ensuring that the immunizations services reach out to the underserved, needy and
    most vulnerable populations while addressing regional inequalities across states
  3. High quality services and innovation: Maintaining highest possible quality in vaccine procurement,
    storage, distribution and delivery services in an innovative and safe manner.
  4. Sustainability and Partnerships: Committing resources – financial, human and technical, that sustain
    immunization benefits to the people at all times and promoting partnerships across different sectors
    and organizations build synergies and expand the overall coverage of the program.
  5. Governance: Decentralized planning through a bottoms up approach to improve operational efficiency
  6. Management excellence and accountability: Implementation, oversight and accountability of
    interventions that optimize efficient use of resources

Vaccines under UIP
 Under UIP, following vaccines are provided:

  1. BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin)
  2. DPT (Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus Toxoid)
  3. OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine)
  4. Measles
  5. Hepatitis B
  6. TT (Tetanus Toxoid)
  7. JE vaccination (in selected high disease burden districts)
  8. Hib containing Pentavalent vaccine (DPT+HepB+Hib) (In selected
    States)
  • Diseases Protected by Vaccination under UIP
  • Diphtheria
  • Pertussis.
  • Tetanus
  • Polio
  • Tuberculosis
  • Measles
  • Hepatitis B
  • Japanese Encephalitis ( commonly known as brain fever)
  • Meningitis and Pneumonia caused by Haemophilus Influenzae type b.

News:- Campaign seeks healthy air even after lockdown ends:- World Environment Day platform on Friday to amplify its demand that the government ensure that particulate matter (PM) 2.5 levels in cities remain at 60 micrograms per cubic metre.

The campaign, #SaalBhar60, unveiled by Haridwar based Ridhima Pandey,
will have celebrities, activists and citizens holding placards demanding ‘Clean Air for All’ and sharing images on social media by tagging various people in government and other agencies who can bring about this change.

The campaign demands that the government put in place measures to ensure that the PM 2.5 levels in cities is 60 micrograms per cubic
metre, which is the safe limit for 24 hours as prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).

News:-

HRD Ministry, Urban Affairs Ministry launches TULIP Programme

News: Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs(MoHUA) and the All India Council for Technical Education under the Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) have jointly launched The Urban Learning Internship Programme(TULIP).

Facts:

  • TULIP: It is a dedicated programme offering internships to fresh graduates in all urban local bodies(ULBs) and smart cities across the country in the domain of urban governance.
  • Eligibility: It is open to Indian Citizens who graduate from an undergraduate program and can apply within 18 months from graduating.
  • Committee: Steering Committee under the Chairmanship of Secretary, HUA including Chairman AICTE and other officials has been constituted to review the progress of the program on a periodic basis.

Additional Facts:

Smart Cities Mission:

  • Launched Year: 2015
  • Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Housing and Urban affairs.
  • Aim: To develop 100 smart cities across the country by 2022 making them citizen-friendly and sustainable.
  • Objective: To promote sustainable and inclusive cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions.

World Environment Day

News: World Environment Day is being observed on June 5, 2020.

Facts:

  • World Environment Day: It was established by the UN General Assembly in 1972 on the first day of the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment.
  • Aim: Tospread awareness and encourage people to take steps to protect the environment.
  • Host Country: It will be hosted by Colombia in partnership with Germany.
  • Theme: Celebrate Biodiversity.

News:-

ndia, Australia upgrade strategic talks to Minister level, as with US, Japan

News: Indian and Australia have held their first ever virtual leaders summit.

Facts:

  • Comprehensive Strategic Partnership(CSP): Elevated the 2009 bilateral Strategic Partnership to a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership(CSP).
  • 2+2 Dialogue: Upgraded the existing 2+2 dialogue between their Foreign and Defence Secretaries to the Ministerial level.
    • This will bring Australia on par with the 2+2 ministerial level dialogues India already has with the US and Japan, the other members of the Quad grouping.
  • Mutual Logistics Support arrangement: Signed the Mutual Logistics Support agreement(MLSA) which will facilitate reciprocal access to military logistics facilities, allow more complex joint military exercise and improve interoperability between the security forces.
    • India has such agreements with the US, France, Singapore and South Korea.
  • Declaration on the Indo-Pacific region: Reached an understanding on enhancing cooperation between their navies and strengthening maritime domain awareness in the Indo-Pacific region.
  • Other Agreements: Several other agreements were signed such as:
    • Framework arrangement on cyber and cyber-enabled critical technology cooperation
    • Memorandum of understanding(MoU) on cooperation in mining and processing of critical and strategic minerals among others.

5.Prime minister addresses the Virtual Global Vaccine Summit 2020

News: At the Virtual Global Vaccine Summit, India has pledged 15 Million US Dollars to Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations(GAVI).

Facts:

  • The Global Vaccine Summit of GAVI is being hosted by the UK government.
  • Aim: To mobilise funding in order to protect the next generation with vaccines, reduce disease inequality and create a healthier, safer and more prosperous world.

Additional Facts:

  • GAVI: It is a global Vaccine Alliance created in 2000 by bringing together public and private sectors with the shared goal of creating equal access to new and underused vaccines for children living in the world’s poorest countries.

EDITORIAL OF THE DAY :- Understanding Swiss Cheese Model in Indian context 

Source – The Hindu

Syllabus – GS 3 – Indian Security forces and their mandate

Context – Analysing the Indian Defence system with Swiss cheese model

Swiss cheese model 

  1. Swiss cheese model is associated with accident investigation in an organisation or a system.
  2. A system consists of multiple domains or layers. These layers are visualised in the model as slices of Swiss cheese, with the holes in them being the imperfections.
  3. Generallyholes in cheese slices are ignored unless when all holes in each slice align and let an accident pass through it.

Swiss cheese Model and defence system

  1. Relation between two– In Defence System, the Swiss cheese slice works the reverse way.
  • The slices represent the major constituents in a nation’s war-making potential, while the holes are pathways through which the domains interact.
  • At the structural level, there are only three slices with holes in each. These must align to ensure that a nation’s defence posture is in tune with its political objectives; any mismatch may turn out to be detrimental to the national interest.
  1. Slices in Indian Defence system – 
  • Policy Apparatus – It comprises ofthe Department of Military Affairs (DMA) and Ministry of Defence (MoD).
  • The defence research and development (R&D) establishment and domestic manufacturing industry.
  • The three services – Army, Navy and Air Force.

Challenges and associated areas of reforms with respect to the Model 

  1. China-Pakistan nexus – Theincreasingly threatening posture of the country’s two adversaries, terrorist activities in Jammu and Kashmir, ongoing incidents along the northern border with China pose greater challenge to Indian defence forces in neighbourhood.
  2. Indo-pacific security – The ongoing great game in Indo-pacific between USA and China along with the threat of pirates and terrorism emanating from the ocean demands strengthened defence forces.
  3. Lack of R&D– Swiss cheese slice representing indigenous R&D and a manufacturing supply chain that ensures quality war-fighting equipment, at the right time and in required quantities, is still not a possibility for India.
  4. Absence of theatre commands– Indian deadline for creation of theatre commands is three years from now however the Chinese announced their ‘theaterisation’ concept in 2015 and it is still work in progress. So a clear perspective is required for what and how of the theaterisation concept  in India

Way Forward – The political, civil and military leadership need to ensure that the holes in their Swiss cheese continue to stay aligned which also involves shunning publicity and building capability first for an enhanced defence system.

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