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The Hindu Newspaper analysis 19th March 2020

Questions of the day :-

Which of the following are the Ozone depleting substances.
1. Hydrobromoflurocarbons (HBFCs)
2. Halons
3. Methyl bromide
4. Carbon tetrachloride
5. Methyl chloroform
Select the correct answer code:
a) All except 3
b) All except 4
c) All except 5
d) All of the above

2)MOSAiC mission, recently seen in news is related to
a) Study of Arctic Climate.
b) Study outer corona of Sun.
c) First solar power spacecraft to orbit Jupiter.
d) None of the above

3)Which of the following rivers flows through Kaziranga National Park.
1. Brahmaputra
2. Diphlu
3. Dharla
4. Mora Diphlu
5. Rangpo
Select the correct answer code:
a) 1, 2, 3
b) 1, 3, 4, 5
c) 1, 2, 4
d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

1) News :- Corona Pandemic could make another 25 million jobless

COVID19 pandemic will significantly increasegl obal unemployment, leaving up to 25 million morepeople out of work, and will dramatically slash workers’ incomes.

As per ILO  “This is no longer a global health crisis, itis also a major labour market and economic crisis.

About ILO :-

About International Labour Organization (ILO)

International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour issues, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.

ILO was created in 1919, as part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, to reflect the belief that universal and lasting peace can be accomplished only if it is based on social justice. It became specialized agency of the United Nations in 1946.

It is a tripartite organization, the only one of its kind bringing together representatives of governments, employers and workers in its executive bodies.

Since 1919, the International Labour Organization has maintained and developed a system of international labour standards aimed at promoting opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and dignity.

In 1969, ILO received the Nobel Peace Prize for improving fraternity and peace among nations, pursuing decent work and justice for workers, and providing technical assistance to other developing nations.

India is a founder member of the International Labour Organization.

The Headquarter of ILO is in Geneva, Switzerland.

2)All you need to know about Census:-

Done every 10 years, the census was first conducted in 1872 (Lord Mayo) during the British rule and the first complete census was done in 1881.

The last census was done in 2011 and the next census will be conducted in 2021, the 16th one.

This time, instead of forms every individual can fill the required details on an app. No document will be required to be shown as proof and self-declaration will suffice.

Who Conducts the Census:-The Census is conducted by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India, under the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.

The Census Act was enacted in 1948 to provide for the scheme of conducting population census with duties and responsibilities of census officers.

The Government of India decided in May 1949 to initiate steps for developing systematic collection of statistics on the size of the population, its growth, etc., and established an organisation in the Ministry of Home Affairs under Registrar General and ex-Officio Census Commissioner, India.

This organisation is responsible for generating data on population statistics including vital statistics and census.

Census is Conducted in 2 Phases :- I) House Enumeration ii) Population Enumeration.

3) All about Ordinance:-

Ordinance making powers of the President Article 123 of the Constitution grants the President certain law making powers to promulgate Ordinances when either of the two Houses of Parliament is not in session and hence it is not possible to enact laws in the Parliament.

An Ordinance may relate to any subject that the Parliament has the power to legislate on. Conversely, it has the same limitations as the Parliament to legislate, given the distribution of powers between the Union, State and Concurrent Lists.

Thus, the following limitations exist with regard to the Ordinance making power of the executive: 

i.   Legislature is not in session: The President can only promulgate an Ordinance when either of the two Houses of Parliament is not in session.

ii.   Immediate action is required: The President cannot promulgate an Ordinance unless he is satisfied that there are circumstances that require taking ‘immediate action’.

iii.   Parliamentary approval during session: Ordinances must be approved by Parliament within six weeks of reassembling or they shall cease to operate.  They will also cease to operate in case resolutions disapproving the Ordinance are passed by both the Houses.

iv. A constitutional amendment cannot be made through ordinance route.

Maximum Length of an Ordinance :- 6months 6 weeks

It was argued in DC Wadhwa vs. State of Bihar (1987) the legislative power of the executive to promulgate Ordinances is to be used in exceptional circumstances and not as a substitute for the law making power of the legislature.

RC Cooper vs. Union of India (1970) the Supreme Court, held that the President’s decision could be challenged on the grounds that ‘immediate action’ was not required; and the Ordinance had been passed primarily to bypass debate and discussion in the legislature.

Ordinance making powers of the Governor Just as the President of India is constitutionally mandated to issue Ordinances under Article 123, the Governor of a state can issue Ordinances under Article 213, when the state legislative assembly (or either of the two Houses in states with bicameral legislatures) is not in session.  The powers of the President and the Governor are broadly comparable with respect to Ordinance making.

However, the Governor cannot issue an Ordinance without instructions from the President in three cases where the assent of the President would have been required to pass a similar Bill.

4)News :- NDRF puts contingency plans in place

The National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) hastrained more than 15,000 staff deployed at the air andland ports across the countryon the protocols to be followed in view of the COVID19 outbreak.

About NDRF :-

NDRF stands for National Disaster Response Force

It comes under Ministry of Home Affairs

It is the only dedicated disaster response force in the world

Established in 2006

HQ: New Delhi

It works under National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) which lays down policies, plans and guidelines for disaster management.

At present there are 12 battalions in NDRF which are deployed strategically across country to provide immediate response.

The Disaster Management Act, 2005 has made the statutory provisions for constitution of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) for the purpose of specialized response to natural and man-made disasters.

Editorials of the Day :-

Topic :- Nominating Ranjan Gogoi to Rajya Sabha

Central Theme :- Retired judges should not accept a Parliamentseat lest it be seen as a political reward.

The gap of four months between his retirement and nomination, and the fact that a series of decisions in his court were in seeming conformity with the present government’s expectations militate against such a nomination.

As per author Ranjan Gogoi should have rejected the offer, considering not only the nature of the judgments that Benches headed by him had delivered in the Ayodhya dispute and Rafale investigation, and the administrative decisions he had made in prioritising some cases above matters such as the validity of electoral bonds and Kashmir’s altered status.

Another Point Raised by author is regarding Allegations of sexual harassment against Mr. Ranjan Gogoi .

The way that case was handled where entire family of the girl along with her was harassed and the girl was not given fair chance to represent her side. These also do not justify the nomination of Mr. Ranjan Gogoi.

16 Point Code of Conduct for Judges :- The 16point code of conduct forjudges or as it was called the “Restatement of Values of Judicial Life”(adopted at a Chief Justices Conference in May 1997) states: “6. Ajudge should practice a degree ofaloofness consistent with the dignity of his office”; 7. A judge shall not hear and decide a matter in which a member of his family, a close relation or a friend is concerned.

Editorial 2 :- An SC verdict violative of minority rights

Background :-  In the latest judgment S.C upheld the West Bengal Board of Madrasah EducationAct, 1994, and the West Bengal Madrasah Service Commission Act,2008, both of which take away the autonomy of madrasas in the State.The appointment of teachers in these theological institutions shall now be made by a board nominatedby the government.

Why the Author Calls this Decision against Minority :- As per author , this decision is violative of the Fundamental Right of the Minorities to manage their Institutions.

As per author Article 30 (unlike in the case of other fundamental rights) is absolute right.

The dual test criterion

In Rev. Sidharjbhai (1963), a six judge bench of the Supreme Court observed that every government regulation in respect of a minority institution shall be valid only when it satisfies the dual test, i.e.,

  1. it isregulative and not destructive of theorganisation’s minority character and
  2. it makes the minority institutionan effective vehicle of minority education.

The Chief Justice of India has now referred this judgment to a larger bench.

5)Probability experts win Abel prize in Mathematics:-

The Abel Prize for Mathematics was awarded to Israeli-American Hillel Furstenberg and Russian born Gregory Margulis.

 

 

 

 

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