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UPSC Prelims Quiz 2020 #18

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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1. Continental shelf is formed due to:

1)Rise in sea level
2)Submergence of a part of a continent
3)Sedimentary deposits brought down by rivers
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2
b) 2, 3
c) 1, 3
d) 1, 2, 3

Solution: d)

Continental Shelf is the submerged edge of a continent which is a gently sloping plain that extends into the Ocean. The typical gradient is less than 1°. The average width of continental shelves is about 80 km. The largest continental shelf is the Siberian Shelf in the Arctic Ocean, which stretches to 1,500 kilometers in width. Because of the gentle slope, the continental shelf is influenced by the changes in the sea level.

2. Consider the following statements regarding Ocean Currents.

1)Ocean currents are not greatly influenced by coriolis force.
2)The oceanic circulation pattern roughly corresponds to the earth’s atmospheric circulation pattern.
3)In the southern hemisphere, the air circulation over the oceans in the middle latitudes is mainly cyclonic.
Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

(a) 1 only
b) 1, 2
c) 2, 3
d) 1, 3

 

Solution: d)

Major ocean currents are greatly influenced by the stresses exerted by the prevailing winds and coriolis force. The oceanic circulation pattern roughly corresponds to the earth’s atmospheric circulation pattern. The air circulation over the oceans in the middle latitudes is mainly anticyclonic (more pronounced in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere).

3. Consider the following statements regarding Black Soil.

1)These soils are also known as the ‘Regur Soil’.
2)These soils are generally permeable and self-ploughing.
3)These soils are beneficial in the rainfed areas.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 1, 3
c) 2, 3
d) 1, 2

 

Solution: b)

These soils are also known as the ‘Regur Soil’ or the ‘Black Cotton Soil’. The black soils are generally clayey, deep and impermeable. They swell and become sticky when wet and shrink when dried. So, during the dry season, these soil develop wide cracks. Thus, there occurs a kind of ‘self ploughing’. Because of this character of slow absorption and loss of moisture, the black soil retains the moisture for a very long time, which helps the crops, especially, the rain fed ones, to sustain even during the dry season.

4. Consider the following statements

1)Jawaharlal Nehru was the first satyagrahi identified by Gandhi for the individual satyagraha
2)Jinnah and Ambedkar attended all the three Round table conferences.
Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both
d) None

 

Solution: c)

Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first Satyagrahi chosen by Gandhi as part of individual Satyagraha. Only Ambedkar attended all the three Round table conferences.

5. Consider the following statements.

1)Kol uprising was against the large-scale transfers of land from Kol headmen to outside farmers and money lenders.
2)Khond Uprising was against the British efforts to stop the Traditional Human Sacrifice practiced by the Khonds.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both
d) None

 

Solution: c)

The Kols, along with other tribes, are inhabitants of Chhotanagpur. This covered Ranchi, Singhbhum, Hazaribagh, Palamau and the western parts of Manbhum. The trouble in 1831 started with large-scale transfers of land from Kol headmen to outsiders like Hindu, Sikh and Muslim farmers and money-lenders who were oppressive and demanded heavy taxes.

From 1837 to 1856, the Khonds of the hilly tracts extending from Odisha to the Srikakulam and Visakhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh revolted against Company rule. They opposed the suppression of human sacrifice, new taxes, and the entry of zamindars into their areas.

6. In 1720, the British government enacted the Calico Act. What is it related to?

a) Disallowing Indians from entering Civil Services
b) Compulsory use of English language in Company affairs
c) Banning the use of printed cotton textile imported from India.
d) Barring of company officials from private trade

 

Solution: c)

The Calico Act banned the import of most cotton textiles into England, followed by the restriction of sale of most cotton textiles. It was a form of economic protectionism, largely in response to India (particularly Bengal), which dominated world cotton textile markets at the time. The Act was a precursor to the Industrial Revolution, when Britain eventually surpassed India as the world’s leading textile manufacturer in the 19th century.

7. Consider the following statements regarding the spread of Jainism.

1)Mahavira organised the Sangha to spread his teachings and admitted only men in the Sangha.
2)The first Jain Council was convened at Valabhi and here the final compilation of Jain literature took place.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both
d) None

 

Solution: d)

Mahavira organised the Sangha to spread his teachings. He admitted both men and women in the Sangha, which consisted of both monks and lay followers.
The first Jain Council was convened at Pataliputra by Sthulabahu, the leader of the Digambaras, in the beginning of the 3rd century B.C. The second Jain Council was held at Valabhi in 5th century A.D. The final compilation of Jain literature called Twelve Angas was completed in this council.

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