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UPSC Quiz Prelims 2020 #5

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Questions:

1.Consider the following statements about Fundamental Rights.

1)They promote the idea of social and economic democracy.
2)They are sacrosanct and permanent.
3)Most of them are directly enforceable while a few are enforced by a law made by the parliament and state legislatures.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) 1 only
b) 1, 2
c) 2, 3
d) 1, 2, 3

2. Consider the following statements.

1) The Permanent Settlement system was introduced by the British to encourage investment in agriculture.
2) The British expected the Permanent Settlement system would help the emergence of a class of yeomen farmers who would be loyal to the Company

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 2 Only
c) Both
d) None

3.According to later vedic period, Rajasuya refer to

a) Sole Ruler
b) Lord of all earth
c) Consecration ceremony
d) Head of the Kingdom

4. Which of the following are an ecotone?

1)Mangroves
2)Grassland
3)Forest
4)Estuary
5)Coral Reef

Select the correct answer code:

a) 1, 2, 3
b) 1, 2, 4
c) 2, 3, 4, 5
d) 1, 3, 4, 5

5. Which of the following statements is/are correct about a biosphere reserve?

1)A biosphere reserve focuses on protection of a single species rather than the entire ecosystem.
2)Gujarat has no biosphere reserve.

Select the correct answer code:

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

6. Which of the following fall under the category of Primary pollutants?

1)Oxides of Sulphur
2)Particulate Matter
3)POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants)
4)Chlorofluorocarbons
5)Ground Level Ozone

Select the correct code.

a) 1, 2, 4
b) 1, 2, 3, 4
c) 1, 2, 4, 5
d) 2, 3, 4, 5

7. High concentration of Teak and Sal forest are found in which topographic region

a) Western Ghats
b) Eastern Ghats
c) Central Highland
d) Aravalli

8. Consider the following statements:

1)Roaring forties are the westerlies lies between 40N to 50N latitude in Northern hemisphere.
2)Horse latitudes are the low pressure and low temperature zone in 25-35 north and south latitude.

Select the correct answer code:

a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

9. Consider the following statements regarding Rupee Appreciation.

1)Rupee can appreciate because of strong portfolio inflow into the country.
2)Avoiding the appreciation of the rupee can strengthen the domestic manufacturing industry.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both
d) None

10. Consider the following statements about Most-favoured-nation (MFN) principle.

1)MFN means that every time a country lowers a trade barrier or opens up a market, it has to do so for the same goods or services from all its trading partners.
2)Countries cannot set up a free trade agreement that applies only to goods traded within the group.
3)Countries can give developing countries special access to their markets.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2
b) 2, 3
c) 1 , 3
d) 1, 2, 3

Answers:

1.Consider the following statements about Fundamental Rights.

1)They promote the idea of social and economic democracy.
2)They are sacrosanct and permanent.
3)Most of them are directly enforceable while a few are enforced by a law made by the parliament and state legislatures.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) 1 only
b) 1, 2
c) 2, 3
d) 1, 2, 3

Solution: d)
Fundamental Rights are not absolute and subject to reasonable restrictions. Further, they are not sacrosanct and can be curtailed or repealed by the Parliament through a constitutional amendment act.

They promote the idea of political democracy. DPSP promote the idea of social and economic democracy.

Most of them are directly enforceable (self-executory) while a few of them can be enforced on the basis of a law made for giving effect to them. Such a law can be made only by the Parliament and not by state legislatures so that uniformity throughout the country is maintained (Article 35).

2. Consider the following statements.

1) The Permanent Settlement system was introduced by the British to encourage investment in agriculture.
2) The British expected the Permanent Settlement system would help the emergence of a class of yeomen farmers who would be loyal to the Company
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 2 Only
c) Both
d) None

Solution: c)
In introducing the Permanent Settlement, British officials hoped to resolve the problems they had been facing since the conquest of Bengal. By the 1770s, the rural economy in Bengal was in crisis, with recurrent famines and declining agricultural output. Officials felt that agriculture, trade and the revenue resources of the state could all be developed by encouraging investment in agriculture. This could be done by securing rights of property and permanently fixing the rates of revenue demand.

3.According to later vedic period, Rajasuya refer to

a) Sole Ruler
b) Lord of all earth
c) Consecration ceremony
d) Head of the Kingdom

Solution: c)
The king performed various rituals and sacrifices to strengthen his position.
They include Rajasuya (consecration ceremony), Asvamedha (horse sacrifice) and Vajpeya (chariot race).

4. Which of the following are an ecotone?

1)Mangroves
2)Grassland
3)Forest
4)Estuary
5)Coral Reef
Select the correct answer code:

a) 1, 2, 3
b) 1, 2, 4
c) 2, 3, 4, 5
d) 1, 3, 4, 5

Solution: b)
An ecotone is a transition area between two biomes. It is where two communities meet and integrate. It may be narrow or wide, and it may be local (the zone between a field and forest) or regional (the transition between forest and grassland ecosystems).

For e.g. the mangrove forests represent an ecotone between marine and terrestrial ecosystem, grassland (between forest and desert), estuary (between fresh water and salt water) and river bank or marsh land (between dry and wet).

5. Which of the following statements is/are correct about a biosphere reserve?

1)A biosphere reserve focuses on protection of a single species rather than the entire ecosystem.
2)Gujarat has no biosphere reserve.
Select the correct answer code:

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: d)
Great Rann of Kutch biosphere is located in Gujarat.

6. Which of the following fall under the category of Primary pollutants?

1)Oxides of Sulphur
2)Particulate Matter
3)POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants)
4)Chlorofluorocarbons
5)Ground Level Ozone

Select the correct code.

a) 1, 2, 4
b) 1, 2, 3, 4
c) 1, 2, 4, 5
d) 2, 3, 4, 5

Solution: a)
A primary pollutant is an air pollutant emitted directly from a source. They are “directly” emitted from the processes such as fossil fuel consumption, volcanic eruption and factories. The major primary pollutants are Oxides of Sulphur, Oxides of Carbon, Oxides of Nitrogen, Methane, Particulate Matter, Ammonia, Chlorofluorocarbons, Toxic metals etc.
A secondary pollutant is not directly emitted as such, but forms when other pollutants (primary pollutants) react in the atmosphere. Important secondary Air Pollutants are Ground Level Ozone, Smog and POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants).

7. High concentration of Teak and Sal forest are found in which topographic region

a) Western Ghats
b) Eastern Ghats
c) Central Highland
d) Aravalli

Solution: c)
Sal and teak forests are best grown in central highlands. Teak and sal are tropical deciduous trees. Madhya Pradesh has the highest concentration of teak and sal forest in India.

8. Consider the following statements:

1)Roaring forties are the westerlies lies between 40N to 50N latitude in Northern hemisphere.
2)Horse latitudes are the low pressure and low temperature zone in 25-35 north and south latitude.
Select the correct answer code:

a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: d)
Roaring forties exist in Southern Hemisphere, not in Northern Hemisphere.
Horse latitudes are high temperature and high pressure belts.

9. Consider the following statements regarding Rupee Appreciation.

1)Rupee can appreciate because of strong portfolio inflow into the country.
2)Avoiding the appreciation of the rupee can strengthen the domestic manufacturing industry.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both
d) None

Solution: c)
Rupee mostly appreciates against dollar due to higher flows into the market.
We need to avoid the appreciation of the rupee if we are to strengthen the domestic manufacturing industry. Any appreciation of the rupee facilitates more imports and less exports, adversely affecting domestic production.

10. Consider the following statements about Most-favoured-nation (MFN) principle.

1)MFN means that every time a country lowers a trade barrier or opens up a market, it has to do so for the same goods or services from all its trading partners.
2)Countries cannot set up a free trade agreement that applies only to goods traded within the group.
3)Countries can give developing countries special access to their markets.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2
b) 2, 3
c) 1 , 3
d) 1, 2, 3

Solution: c)
MFN means that every time a country lowers a trade barrier or opens up a market, it has to do so for the same goods or services from all its trading partners — whether rich or poor, weak or strong.
Some exceptions are allowed. For example, countries can set up a free trade agreement that applies only to goods traded within the group — discriminating against goods from outside. Or they can give developing countries special access to their markets. Or a country can raise barriers against products that are considered to be traded unfairly from specific countries. And in services, countries are allowed, in limited circumstances, to discriminate. But the agreements only permit these exceptions under strict conditions.

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